Food & Wine Dictionary

AffogatoAn affogato (Italian, "drowned") is a coffee-based beverage. It usually takes the form of a scoop of vanilla gelato or ice cream topped with a shot of hot espresso. Some variations also include a shot of Amaretto or other liqueur.
AglioneAglione is a Tuscan sauce made with tomatoes and garlic (aglio).
AgrodolceAgrodulce is a traditional sweet and sour sauce in Italian cuisine. Agrodolce is made by reducing sour and sweet elements, traditionally vinegar and sugar.
AioliAioli is is a Provençal traditional sauce made of garlic, olive oil, lemon juice, and egg yolks.
AjoblancoAjoblanco (sometimes written ajo blanco) is a popular Spanish cold soup. This dish is made of bread, crushed almonds, garlic, water, olive oil, salt and sometimes vinegar. It is usually served with grapes or slices of melon. When almonds were not available, for instance during the post-war period, flour from dried beans was used. It is also known as "white gazpacho".
Al DenteAn Italian term translated “to the tooth” and describes the sensory evaluation of cooking pasta or other food with a bit of bite, but not a hard centre.
AllspiceThis fragrant spice comes from the dried berries of an evergreen tree native to Jamaica, Mexico and Honduras. Reminiscent of a mix of cloves, nutmeg, and other spices, allspice is used for baking, pickling spice, and jerk seasonings.
AllumettesAllumettes are French for vegetable strips, matchstick-size in length and width.
AmarettiMeaning ‘little bitter things’ in Italian, amaretti are small almond biscuits similar to macaroons. Some are made using ground sweet and bitter almonds baked with egg and sugar; others from ground apricot kernels. They are light and airy, crunchy on the outside and chewy in the middle. Amarettini are the mini version.
AmarettoA liqueur with a distinct flavor of almonds, though it's often made with apricot pit kernels. The original liqueur, Amaretto di Saronno, is from Saronno, Italy. Many distilleries produce their own amaretto. Usually served straight, on the rocks or used as a mixer. Used often in baked goods.
Anaheim PepperAnother mild type of pepper is the Anaheim pepper. This pepper is usually maroon in color and has a long, skinny body. While the Anaheim pepper usually has a Scoville Heat Index around 1,000, some varieties can have a rating as high as 5,000.
Ancho ChilesAncho chiles are dried ripe, red poblano peppers. The dried peppers have a mild to medium to heat, and ground anchos are frequently used in chili powder. Anchos are dark brown and wrinkly when dried, but turn brick red after soaking.
AniseThese small, oval seeds are related to dill and cumin and come from Spain and Mexico. They taste and smell like licorice. Anise is used in baking sweets, making liqueurs, and in the curries for stoups and stews in India and the Middle East.
Annatto SeedsAnnatto, sometimes called roucou or achiote, is derived from the seeds of the achiote trees of tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Its scent is described as "slightly peppery with a hint of nutmeg" and flavor as "slightly nutty, sweet and peppery". Historically, it has been used as coloring in many cheeses (e.g., Cheddar, Gloucester, Red Leicester), cheese products (e.g. American cheese, Velveeta), and dairy spreads (e.g. butter, margarine). Annatto can also be used to color a number of non-dairy foods such as rice, custard powder, baked goods, seasonings, processed potatoes, snack foods, breakfast cereals and smoked fish.
AOCThe appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC), which translates as "controlled designation of origin", is the French certification granted to certain French geographical indications for wines, cheeses, butters, and other agricultural products, all under the auspices of the government bureau Institut national des appellations d'origine, now called Institut national de l'origine et de la qualité (INAO). It is based on the concept of terroir.
AranciniArancini or arancine are fried rice balls coated with breadcrumbs, said to have originated in Sicily in the 10th century. Arancini are usually filled with ragù (meat sauce), tomato sauce, mozzarella, and/or peas.
Arbequina Olive OilThe Arbequina olive yields a high volume of oil, so it's used in many olive oil blends. Independently, it has a light, mild, green flavor that finishes with a burst of pepper. The Arbequina's hearty, earthy nature makes it an excellent addition to pastas, vegetables, and sauces, and when added to any of our balsamic vinegars, yields a peppery-sweet, balanced vinaigrette perfect for fresh summer salads.
ArroserArroser is the french verb which in a culinary context means to baste. (i.e. arrose the scallop with butter) This technique is useful when searing a piece of protein to evenly brown the seared surface with the hot oil or fat.
Asiago One of the most common Italian cheeses, Asiago is a grana-type cheese, made from cow’s milk. It is a sweet curd, semi-cooked cheese in the grana group, a group that also includes Grana Padano and Parmigiano Romano. (Grana is the Italian word for grain; it refers to a coarse-grained cheese.) Typically pale yellow in color, Asiago has a mild, cheddary, nutty flavor; it gets more flavorful and more crumbly as it ages.
Au GratinAu gratin refers to a style of cooked food, covered with a sauce and sprinkled with crumbled or grated cheese, dotted with butter and browned under the grill or broiler.
BagelA bagel (also spelled beigel) is a bread product, traditionally shaped by hand into the form of a ring from yeasted wheat dough, roughly hand-sized, which is first boiled for a short time in water and then baked. The result is a dense, chewy, doughy interior with a browned and sometimes crisp exterior.
Bain-MarieA roasting pan or baking dish partially filled with water to allow food to cook more slowly and be protected from direct high heat. Used for custards and terrines.
Baked AlaskaBaked Alaska (also known as glace au four, omelette à la norvégienne, Norwegian omelette and omelette surprise) is a dessert food. The dish is made of ice cream placed in a pie dish lined with slices of sponge cake or Christmas pudding and topped with meringue. The entire dessert is then placed in an extremely hot oven for a brief time, long enough to firm the meringue. The meringue is an effective insulator, and the short cooking time prevents the heat from getting through to the ice cream.
Balsamic VinegarTrue balsamic vinegar is made from a reduction of pressed Trebbiano and Lambrusco grapes. The resulting thick syrup, called mosto cotto in Italian, is subsequently aged for a minimum of 12 years in a battery of seven barrels of successively smaller sizes. The casks are made of different woods like chestnut, acacia, cherry, oak, mulberry, ash, and, in the past, juniper. True balsamic vinegar is rich, glossy, deep brown in color and has a complex flavour that balances the natural sweet and sour elements of the cooked grape juice with hints of wood from the casks.
Basting Basting is a preparation method which moistens meat or poultry with pan juices or drippings during roasting by using a spoon or bulb baster as a tool.
BâtardeLiterally translated as "bastard," culinarily bâtarde refers to a traditional white loaf of bread that's slightly larger than a baguette.
Bavarian CreamA cold dessert composed of a rich custard, whipped cream, various flavorings (fruit purée, chocolate, liqueurs and so on) and gelatin. The mixture may be spooned into stemmed glasses or into a decorative mold to be unmolded when set.
Béarnaise SauceBéarnaise sauce is a sauce made of clarified butter emulsified in egg yolks, white wine vinegar and flavoured with herbs.
BéchamelA classic French white sauce made with milk, bound with a cooked flour and butter mixture called a roux, flavored with bay leaves, nutmeg and sometimes onion.
BeignetBeignet, synonymous with the English “fritter”, is the French term for a pastry made from deep-fried choux paste. Beignets are commonly known in the U.S. as a dessert served with powdered sugar on top; however, they may be savory dishes as well and may contain meat, vegetables, or fruits.
Beurre BlancA sauce made by reducing white wine with vinegar and shallots, then whisking in cold butter so that the mixture emulsifies into a thick, buttery sauce. A beurre blanc is a classic mate to poached fish.
Beurre NoirBeurre noir is melted butter that is cooked over low heat until the milk solids turn a very dark brown. As soon as this happens, acid is carefully added to the hot butter, usually lemon juice or a type of vinegar. Some recipes also add a sprig of parsley, which is removed from the hot butter before the acid is added.
BibimbapBibimbap is a signature Korean dish. The word literally means "mixed rice". Bibimbap is served as a bowl of warm white rice topped with namul (sautéed and seasoned vegetables) and gochujang (chili pepper paste). A raw or fried egg and sliced meat (usually beef) are common additions. The ingredients are stirred together thoroughly just before eating. It can be served either cold or hot.
Bird's Eye ChiliesThese small, tapered red or green chillies are extremely pungent and very, very hot! They are sometimes called Thai chillies but are Mexican in origin. Often used in Chinese and South East Asian cooking.
BiscochitosCrispy anise-flavored cookies native to New Mexico; cut into stars or other decorative shapes and traditionally served at Christmas.
BiscottiThese hard Italian biscuits were traditionally made with hazelnut and aniseed but are now flavoured with a wide variety of nuts and lemon or orange rind. They are hard and crunchy because they are twice-cooked (‘bis’ is Italian for twice and ‘cotti’ for cooked). This makes them ideal for dipping into dessert wine or coffee. Recipes for biscotti date back as far as the 13th century in Italy.
BisqueA thick, rich creamy soup containing fish or game or pureed vegetables. A rich shellfish soup made with the shells of the animal. The soup is enriched with cream and Cognac and garnished with pieces of the shellfish meat. This name is also used to describe vegetable soups prepared in the same manner as shellfish bisques. Also a frozen creamy dessert.
Black Mission FigsThe Mission fig (also known as Black Mission or Franciscana) is a popular variety of the edible fig (Ficus carica). It was first introduced to what is now the United States in 1768 when Franciscan missionaries planted it in San Diego.
Black PeppercornThis is the most popular form of pepper in the USA. Black peppercorns are produced by picking the mature but unripe berries as they are beginning to turn from green to yellow. They are then boiled briefly and then allowed to ferment and dry naturally in the sun (or by forced-air heating) until wrinkled and black. Black Pepper is moderatly hot, pungent and aromatic.
BliniA small unsweetened pancake made of buckwheat flour and often leavened with yeast. These pancakes are often brushed with large amounts of melted butter and served with caviar and sour cream. Other versions may be made of vegetable purees or semolina flour.
Bok ChoyA vegetable resembling Swiss Chard in shape, but much lighter in color and flavor. Bok choy has a mild flavor that is great raw in salads. It's also the best cabbage for stir-fries; the stems turn almost creamy after cooking. It can be found fresh in Oriental markets and most supermarkets, year-round. (Also called Chinese Chard)
BonitoBonito are a tribe of medium-sized, predatory fish in the Scombridae family, belonging to the Sardini tribe. Pacific and Atlantic bonito meat has a firm texture and a darkish color. The bonito has a moderate fat content. The meat of young or small bonito can be of lighter color, close to that of skipjack tuna, and is sometimes used as a cheaper substitute of skipjack, especially for canning purposes. Bonito may not be marketed as tuna in all countries, however.
BoqueronesBoquerones en vinagre are a type of appetizer or tapa, meze frequently found in south Spain. The central ingredient of the dish are the boquerones, fresh anchovies. The fillets are marinated in vinegar or a mixture of vinegar and olive oil, and seasoned with garlic and parsley. It is commonly served with beer or soft drinks, and rarely with wine.
Bordeaux (Red Wine)A Bordeaux wine is any wine produced in the Bordeaux region of France, centred on the city of Bordeaux and covering the whole area of the Gironde department, with a total vineyard area of over 120,000 hectares, making it the largest wine growing area in France. Red Bordeaux is generally made from a blend of grapes. Permitted grapes are Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Malbec and rarely Carménère. Today Carménère is rarely used, with Château Clerc Milon, a fifth growth Bordeaux, being one of the few to still retain Carménère vines.
Bordeaux (White Wine)A Bordeaux wine is any wine produced in the Bordeaux region of France, centred on the city of Bordeaux and covering the whole area of the Gironde department, with a total vineyard area of over 120,000 hectares, making it the largest wine growing area in France. White Bordeaux is predominantly, and exclusively in the case of the sweet Sauternes, made from Sémillon, Sauvignon blanc and Muscadelle - Typical blends are usually 80% Sémillon, 20% Sauvignon blanc. Other permitted grape varieties are Sauvignon gris, Ugni blanc, Colombard, Merlot blanc, Ondenc and Mauzac.
Boule de PainA round loaf. Before the baguette became famous, the boule had been the original “French” bread. Then and now some families still place a large boule on the French breakfast table, and outside the larger cities slices from a boule may be on your breakfast table.
Bouquet GarniA French-invented sachet of herbs, traditionally tied together, but now sold in small muslin bags. Usually includes parsley, thyme, a bay leaf and some rosemary, but may also include marjoram, garlic, rosemary, etc. Variations may include fennel, leeks, celery leaves, citrus rinds, garlic and black pepper. Added to stews, soups and sauces for flavoring; the bundle is easily removed when desired.
BourrideAnother fish stew, similar to bouillabaisse, from southern France. Here the broth, in which large pieces of fish are poached, is strained and thickened with aioli. The two are then served together in shallow bowls with bread or croutons. It is usually strongly flavored with garlic
BraisingBraising (from the French “braiser”) is a combination cooking method using both moist and dry heat; typically the food is first seared at a high temperature and then finished in a covered pot with a variable amount of liquid, resulting in a particular flavor. Braising of meat is often referred to as pot roasting, though some authors make a distinction between the two methods based on whether additional liquid is added. Braising relies on heat, time, and moisture to break down the tough connective tissue collagen in meat, making it an ideal way to cook tougher cuts. Many classic braised dishes such as coq au vin are highly evolved methods of cooking tough and otherwise unpalatable foods. Pressure cooking and slow cooking (e.g., crockpots) are forms of braising.
Brie In France, Brie is very different from the cheese exported to the United States. Real French Brie is unstabilized and the flavor is complex when the surface turns slightly brown. When the cheese is still pure-white, it is not matured. If the cheese is cut before the maturing process is finished, it will never develop properly. Exported Brie, however, is stabilized and never matures. Stabilized Brie has a much longer shelf life and is not susceptible to bacteriological infections. Brie, one of the great dessert cheeses, comes as either a 1 or 2 kilogram wheel and is packed in a wooden box. In order to enjoy the taste fully, Brie must be served at room temperature.
BriocheA large light, very rich, yeast roll made with lots of butter and eggs. Brioche is baked in many shapes though the brioche e tete is best known. The dough can be flavored with nuts or candied fruit, as well as herbs and spices. It may also be used to wrap foods like coulibiac. Slices of toasted brioche are the perfect companion to foie gras and gravlax. Brioche is very similar to the Jewish Challah.
BriocheBrioche is a pastry of French origin that is akin to a highly enriched bread, and whose high egg and butter content give it a rich and tender crumb. It is "light and slightly puffy, more or less fine, according to the proportion of butter and eggs". It has a dark, golden, and flaky crust, frequently accentuated by an egg wash applied after proofing. Brioche is considered a Viennoiserie. It is made in the same basic way as bread, but has the richer aspect of a pastry because of the extra addition of eggs, butter, liquid (milk, water, cream, and, sometimes, brandy) and occasionally a bit of sugar. Brioche, along with pain au lait and pain aux raisins — which are commonly eaten at breakfast or as a snack — form a leavened subgroup of Viennoiserie. Brioche is often cooked with fruit or chocolate chips and served as a pastry or as the basis of a dessert with many local variations in added ingredients, fillings or toppings.
BrunoiseBrunoise is a culinary knife technique in which the food item is first julienned and then turned a quarter turn and diced again, producing cubes of about 3 mm or less on each side, or 1/8-inch dice. In France, a "brunoise" cut is smaller, 1 to 2 mm on each side, or 1/16-inch dice. Some typical vegetables for a brunoise are carrots, celery, leeks, and turnips. The diced vegetables are blanched briefly in salty boiling water and then submerged in salted ice water for a few seconds to set the color. The brunoise is used as a garnish in many dishes; it is often used to garnish consommé. A brunoise should be consistent in size and shape, as this helps to create a pleasing and professional presentation.
BucatiniBucatini, also known as perciatelli, is a thick spaghetti-like pasta with a hole running through the centre. The name comes from Italian: buco, meaning "hole", while bucato means "pierced".
Cabernet SauvignonCabernet Sauvignon is more assertive than Merlot, with more tannin and greater aging potential. It can have flavors of blackberries, plums, black currants, and cassis. Aged in oak, Cabernet Sauvignon can take on flavors of vanilla, cedar, chocolate, and coffee. Beyond Bordeaux, Cabernet Sauvignon does well in Napa, California, where it produces smooth, ripe wines. Washington State, Chile and Australia are also making excellent Cabernet.
Cactus PearThe fruit of prickly pears, commonly called cactus fruit (or cactus fig) is edible, although it has to be peeled carefully to remove the small spines on the outer skin before consumption. Cactus figs are often used to make candies, jelly, or drinks such as vodka or lemonade.
CalissonCalisson is an almond shaped confection from Aix-en-Provence, made with almond paste, sugar, and crystallized melons, with wafer paper at the bottom and a crisp sugar glaze on top.
CanapéA canapé (a type of hors d’œuvre, "outside work") is a small, prepared and usually decorative food, held in the fingers and often eaten in one bite. Because they are often served during cocktail hours, it is often desired that a canapé be either salty or spicy, in order to encourage guests to drink more. A canapé may also be referred to as finger food, although not all finger foods are canapés. Crackers or small slices of bread or toast or puff pastry, cut into various shapes, serve as the base for savory butters or pastes, often topped with a “canopy” of such savory foods as meat, cheese, fish, caviar, foie gras, purées or relish.
CapersThe flower buds of a small bush found in Mediterranean countries. To make capers, the buds are dried and then pickled in vinegar with some salt. To reduce saltiness, rinse before using. The piquant taste of capers permeates any sauce quickly, and just a few supply a big flavor boost.
CaponataCaponata (Sicilian: capunata) is a Sicilian aubergine (eggplant) dish consisting of a cooked vegetable salad made from chopped fried eggplant and celery seasoned with sweetened vinegar, with capers in a sweet and sour sauce.
CaponataCaponata (Sicilian: capunata) is a Sicilian aubergine (eggplant) dish consisting of a cooked vegetable salad made from chopped fried eggplant and celery seasoned with sweetened vinegar, with capers in a sweet and sour sauce.
CapperiSee Caper.
CaramelCaramel is a beige to dark-brown confectionery product made by heating any of a variety of sugars. The process of caramelization consists of heating sugar slowly to around 170 °C (340 °F). As the sugar heats, the molecules break down and re-form into compounds with a characteristic color and flavor.
CaramelizeTo heat sugar until it liquefies and become a clear caramel syrup ranging in color from golden to dark brown. Fruits and vegetables with natural sugars can be caramelized by sauteeing, roasting or grilling, giving them a sweet flavor and golden glaze.
CarawayCaraway (Carum carvi), also known as meridian fennel, or Persian cumin,""Shahi Jeera", is a biennial plant in the family Apiaceae, native to western Asia, Europe and Northern Africa. The plant is similar in appearance to other members of the carrot family, with finely divided, feathery leaves with thread-like divisions, growing on 20–30 cm stems.
CarbonaraCarbonara is is an Italian pasta dish based on eggs, cheese (Pecorino Romano or Parmigiano-Reggiano), bacon (guanciale or pancetta), and black pepper. Spaghetti is usually used as the pasta.
CardamomA member of the ginger family, this expensive spice comes from ground cardamom seeds and has an intense, sweet flavor. A little goes a long way with this spice. Cardamom is used in Arabic countries to flavor coffee, in many Scandinavian dishes, and in many curry blends in India.
CassouletCassoulet is is a rich, slow-cooked casserole originating in the south of France, containing meat (typically pork sausages, goose, duck and sometimes mutton), pork skin (couennes) and white haricot beans.The dish is named after its traditional cooking vessel, the cassole, a deep, round, earthenware pot with slanting sides.
CavaCava (plural caves) is a sparkling wine of Denominación de Origen (DO) status, most of which is produced in Catalonia. It may be white (blanco) or rosé (rosado). The macabeu, parellada and xarel·lo are the most popular and traditional grape varieties for producing cava. Only wines produced in the champenoise traditional method may be labelled cavas, those produced by other processes may only be called "sparkling wines" (vinos espumosos). About 95% of all cava is produced in the Penedès area in Catalonia, with the village of Sant Sadurní d'Anoia being home to many of Spain's largest production houses. The two major producers are Codorníu and Freixenet.
CavallucciCavallucci is a rich Christmas pastry made with anise, almonds, candied fruits, coriander, and flour. It has an Italian origin which translates approximately to "Little Horses". The chewy biscuits traditionally uses Tuscan millefiori honey as an essential element for the paste.
CaviarCaviar, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization, is a product made from salt-cured fish-eggs of the Acipenseridae family. The roe can be "fresh" (non-pasteurized) or pasteurized, with pasteurization reducing its culinary and economic value. Traditionally the term caviar refers only to roe from wild sturgeon in the Caspian and Black Seas (Beluga, Ossetra and Sevruga caviars). Depending on the country, caviar may also be used to describe the roe of other fish such as salmon, steelhead, trout, lumpfish, whitefish, and other species of sturgeon. Caviar is considered a luxury delicacy and is eaten as a garnish or a spread. In 2012, caviar sold for $2,500 per pound, or $3,000 to $5,500 per kilo.
CayenneMade from the dried pods of chili peppers, this fiery spice is popular in Mexican, Southwest American, Indian, and Italian cooking. It has little aroma but is hot to the taste.
Cayenne PepperThe Cayenne pepper is another hot pepper (between 25,000 and 50,000 on the Scoville Heat Index) that is popular with those looking to add heat to food. Red in color, the Cayenne pepper is generally dried and used in powder form. Additionally, this pepper has been used in natural medicines for hundreds of years due to reported healing attributes.
CeleriacIs also called turnip-rooted celery or knob celery, is a variety of celery cultivated for its edible roots, hypocotyl, and shoots.
CevicheCeviche is a seafood dish popular in the coastal regions of the Americas, especially Central and South America. The dish is typically made from fresh raw fish marinated in citrus juices, such as lemon or lime, and spiced with ají or chili peppers. Additional seasonings, such as chopped onions, salt, and coriander, may also be added.
ChablisThe Chablis region is the northernmost wine district of the Burgundy region in France. The grapevines around the town of Chablis are almost all Chardonnay, making a dry white wine renowned for the purity of its aroma and taste. The cool climate of this region produces wines with more acidity and flavors less fruity than Chardonnay wines grown in warmer climates, The wines often have a "flinty" note, sometimes described as "goût de pierre à fusil" ("tasting of gunflint"), and sometimes as "steely". In comparison with the white wines from the rest of Burgundy, Chablis has on average much less influence of oak. Most basic Chablis is completely unoaked, and vinified in stainless steel tanks. The amount of barrel maturation, if any, is a stylistic choice which varies widely among Chablis producers. Many Grand Cru and Premier Cru wines receive some maturation in oak barrels, but typically the time in barrel and the proportion of new barrels is much smaller than for white wines of Côte de Beaune.
ChallahChallah is a special Jewish braided bread eaten on Sabbath and holidays. Traditional challah recipes use numerous eggs, fine white flour, water, sugar, yeast, and salt. Modern recipes may use fewer eggs (there are also eggless versions) and may replace white flour with whole wheat, oat, or spelt flour.
Chanterelle MushroomMeaty and fleshy texture; nutty flavor with a hint of apricot. Best sauteed with poulty or fish.
ChardonnayChardonnay is a very versatile wine grape: its flavor and aromas are easily influenced by where it's grown and how it's made. Fruit flavors range from apple and lime in cooler climates to tropical fruits in warmer places. When barreled in oak, it takes on a richness characterized by honey and butter flavors. When barreled in stainless steel, it often retains more mineral flavors and comes across as fresher on the palate. Chardonnay excels in Burgundy, France. Cool coastal areas of California also produce excellent Chardonnay. Chardonnay is a favorite with seafood. Minerally versions, like those from Chablis, France, pair particularly well with oysters.
ChayoteKnown as vegetable pears or mirlitons, chayote are a subtropical member of the squash family, eaten as a vegetable. This pear-shaped, gourdlike fruit, has a single seed and a taste similar to zucchini. It is commonly used in Creole cuisine, especially around New Orleans in the winter, as a festive dish with a seafood stuffing.
CheddarCheddar is the most widely purchased and eaten cheese in the world. Cheddar cheeses were originally made in England, however today they are manufactured in many countries all over the world. Fully cured Cheddar is a hard, natural cheese. It is shaped like a drum, 15 inches in diameter, with a natural rind bound in cloth. Normally, the color of Cheddar ranges from white to pale yellow. Some cheddars, however, have a color added, giving the cheese a yellow-orange color. Cheddar is always made from cows milk and has a slightly crumbly texture if properly cured. If the cheese is too young, the texture is smooth. Cheddar gets a sharper taste the longer it matures. It is generally matured between 9 and 24 months.
Chenin BlancChenin blanc (known also as Pineau de la Loire among other names), is a white wine grape variety from the Loire valley of France. Its high acidity means it can be used to make everything from sparkling wines to well-balanced dessert wines, although it can produce very bland, neutral wines if the vine's natural vigor is not controlled. Outside the Loire it is found in most of the New World wine regions; it is the most widely planted variety in South Africa, where it is also known as Steen. It provides a fairly neutral palate for the expression of terroir, vintage variation and the winemaker's treatment. In cool areas the juice is sweet but high in acid with a full-bodied fruity palate. In the unreliable summers of northern France, the acidity of under ripened grapes was often masked with chaptalization with unsatisfactory results, whereas now the less ripe grapes are made into popular sparkling wines such as Crémant de Loire. The white wines of the Anjou AOC are perhaps the best expression of Chenin as a dry wine, with flavors of quince and apples. In nearby Vouvray AOC they aim for an off-dry style, developing honey and floral characteristics with age. In the best vintages the grapes can be left on the vines to develop noble rot, producing an intense, viscous dessert wine which may improve considerably with age.
CherimoyaAlso called the custard apple. A Native American fruit, now grown in California, with a creamy white interior and sweet pineapple flavor, with the consistency of banana; tastes like a cross between banana and pineapple; has a hard brown shell, and the flesh is dotted with black seeds that must be removed before eating.
Cherry PeppersAlso known as pimento peppers, cherry peppers are heart-shaped and are about four inches long and three inches wide. These peppers are actually very mild, scoring about a 500 on the Scoville Heat Index. Cherry peppers are perhaps best known to be the red filling that can typically be found inside of olives.
ChervilAlso known as French parsley, is one of the components of the four fines herbes. It has a delicate licorice flavor with the mild pepperiness of parsley. It is a fleeting flavor. Cooking and drying destroys the subtle flavor, so use large quantities of fresh leaves, toward the end of cooking.
ChiffonadeChiffonade is a cooking technique in which herbs or leafy green vegetables are cut into long, thin strips. This is accomplished by stacking leaves, rolling them tightly, then cutting across the rolled leaves with a sharp knife, producing fine ribbons.
Chile de árbolThe Chile de árbol (Spanish for tree chili) is a small and potent Mexican chili pepper also known as bird's beak chile and rat's tail chile. Their heat index is between 15,000 and 30,000 Scoville units. The peppers are a bright red color when mature. Chile de árbol peppers can be found fresh, dried, or powdered.
ChimichurriChimichurri is made from finely chopped parsley (an alternative version uses coriander), minced garlic, olive oil, oregano, and white or red wine vinegar. Additional flavorings such as coriander, paprika, cumin, thyme, lemon, basil, cilantro and bay leaf may be included. In its red version, tomato and red bell pepper may also be added. It can also be used as a marinade for grilled meat. Chimichurri is available bottled or dehydrated for preparation by mixing with oil and water. Somewhat similar sauces are pistou and pesto.
ChivesOne of the most popular of culinary herbs, the leaves of this plant can be used in a variety of ways. The flowers are also edible, and can be used to garnish salads and other cold dishes. Chives are readily grown indoors or outside. They have thin, tubular, grass like foliage and clover like lavender flower heads that bloom in mid to late summer. Leaves have a mild onion flavor. Chives will turn drab green when heated.
Chocolate TrufflesChocolate truffles are small, cherry-sized balls of ganache rolled in cocoa powder or coated in chocolate and, sometimes, chopped nuts. They’re rich and luxurious and often flavoured with alcohol, and named as such because they resemble freshly-dug truffle fungus. Truffles are often served as petits fours in restaurants and also sold as sweets.
ChutneyChutney refers to a wide-ranging family of condiments from Indian cuisine/Pakistani cuisine that usually contain some mixture of spices and vegetables and/or fruits. There are many varieties of chutney.
CiabattaCiabatta (literally slipper bread) is an Italian white bread made from wheat flour and yeast, created in 1982 by a baker in Adria, Veneto, Italy in response to popularity of French baguettes.
CilantroThe young leaf of the coriander plant, this herb is popular in Middle Eastern, Mexican, and Asian cooking as a cooling counterpoint to fiery spices. The taste is a mix of parsley and citrus.
CinnamonProbably the most common baking spice, cinnamon is made from the dried bark of various laurel trees, native to Sri Lanka and other regions. Cinnamon has a sweet and woody taste and is used in beverages, apple dishes, and many savory meat dishes.
ClaretSee Bordeaux (Red Wine)
Clarified ButterIs milk fat rendered from butter to separate the milk solids and water from the butterfat. Typically, it is produced by melting butter and allowing the components to separate by density.
Clotted CreamClotted cream (sometimes called clouted cream or Cornish cream) is a thick cream made by indirectly heating full-cream cow's milk using steam or a water bath and then leaving it in shallow pans to cool slowly. During this time, the cream content rises to the surface and forms 'clots' or 'clouts'.
ClovesCloves are dried, unopened flower buds from an evergreen tree native to Madagascar, Brazil, and other areas. Cloves, with their very strong pungent, sweet taste, are used in spice cookies and cake, and many other savory dishes.
ColombardColombard (also known as French Colombard in North America) is a white French wine grape variety that is the offspring of Gouais blanc and Chenin blanc. In France it was traditionally grown in the Charentes and Gascony for distilling into Cognac and Armagnac respectively. Today it is still among the permitted white grape varieties in Bordeaux wine, and in Gascony for Vins de Pays Côtes de Gascogne and the white Floc de Gascogne.
CompoteDried and fresh fruit cooked with sugar to a jam like consistency, brief enough to allow the fruit to retain their individual identity. Otherwise, a compote (French for "mixture") is a dessert originating from 17th century France made of whole or pieces of fruit in sugar syrup. Whole fruits are cooked in water with sugar and spices.
ConcasseA French term for chopping a vegetable coarsely. This is used most often when referring to chopped tomatoes or other soft foods.
ConchiglieConchiglie are large shell shaped pasta noodles. These are often stuffed and baked au gratin. Small shells are called conchigliette.
CondrieuCondrieu (From the French coin de ruisseau meaning "corner of the brook")is a French wine-growing Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) located in the northern Rhône wine, near Vienne and to the south of the Côte-Rôtie AOC. The vineyards are situated in the seven communes of Limony, Chavanay, Malleval, Saint-Michel-sur-Rhône, Saint-Pierre-de Boeuf, Vérin, and Condrieu in the French departments of Ardèche, Rhône and Loire on the steep slopes of the foothills of the Massif Central on the right bank of the Rhône river. The four southernmost communes can also produce wine under the Saint-Joseph AOC. The wines made in this AOC are exclusively white, from the Viognier grape, which may have originated in the region. Within Condrieu is the enclave AOC of Château-Grillet, producing wines that are also 100% Viognier. The Condrieu AOC was officially created in 1940.
ConfitConfit is a generic term for various kinds of food that have been cooked in oil or sugar water (syrup).
ConsomméA consommé is a type of clear soup made from richly flavored stock or bouillon that has been clarified, a process which uses egg whites to remove fat and sediment. A consommé is made by adding a mixture of ground meats, together with mirepoix (a combination of carrots, celery, and onions), tomatoes, and egg whites into either bouillon or stock.
ConsumméIn cooking, a consommé is a type of clear soup made from richly flavored stock or bouillon that has been clarified, a process which uses egg whites to remove fat and sediment. A consommé is made by adding a mixture of ground meats, together with mirepoix (a combination of carrots, celery, and onions), tomatoes, and egg whites into either bouillon or stock. The key to making a high quality consommé is simmering; the act of simmering, combined with frequent stirring, brings impurities to the surface of the liquid, which are further drawn out due to the presence of acid from the tomatoes. Eventually, the solids begin to congeal at the surface of the liquid, forming a 'raft', which is caused by the proteins (including albumins, mucoproteins, and globulins) in the egg whites. Once the 'raft' begins to form, the heat is reduced, and the consommé is simmered at a lower heat until it reaches the desired flavor, which usually takes anywhere from 45 minutes to over an hour. The resulting concoction is a clear liquid that has either a rich amber colour (for beef or veal consommé) or a very pale yellow colour (for poultry consommé). It is then carefully drawn from the pot and passed again through a filter to ensure its purity, and is then put through a lengthy process where all of the visible fat is skimmed from the surface.
Coq au VinCoq au Vin is a French braise of chicken cooked with wine, lardons, mushrooms, and optionally garlic. While the wine is typically Burgundy, many regions of France have variants of coq au vin using the local wine, such as coq au vin jaune (Jura), coq au Riesling (Alsace), coq au pourpre or coq au violet (Beaujolais nouveau), coq au Champagne, and so on.
CorianderComing from Morocco and Romania, coriander is a mild seed with a flavor similar to that of a lemon and sage blend. Coriander is used in Middle Eastern cooking, sausage making, curries, and the whole seeds are used in pickling and special drinks.
CoulisCoulis is a form of thick sauce made from puréed and strained vegetables or fruits.
CourgetteThe zucchini or courgette is a summer squash which can reach nearly a meter in length, but which is usually harvested at half that size or less.
CouscousCouscous is a fine-grained semolina pasta used primarily in Moroccan cuisine. Made from semolina (which itself is a flour made from Durum wheat). The name couscous also refers to the famous Maghreb dish in which semolina or cracked wheat is steamed in the perforated top part of a special pot called a couscoussiere, while chunks of meat (usually chicken or lamb), various vegetables, chickpeas and raisins simmer in the bottom part.
CremaCrema is thickened and soured cream, the equivalent of crème fraiche; usually a combination of whipping cream and buttermilk; used as a garnish, and it melts easily; sour cream may be substituted, but it is not as rich and is more acidic.
Crema CatalanaCrema catalana is the famous yellow cream made with egg yolk, milk and sugar, whose denseness is between a crème pâtissière or natillas and a flan; used to stuff a great amount of pastries, or to make simple desserts with, for example, fruit, and that is also eaten in a small flat pottery plate, after covering the cream with white crystal sugar and burning it, in order to create a layer of solid sugar that has to be broken with a small spoon before reaching the cream.
Crème AnglaiseIs a light pouring custard used as a dessert cream or sauce. The cream is made by whipping egg yolks and sugar together until the yolk is almost white, and then slowly adding hot milk, while whisking. This process is commonly referred to as tempering.
Crème BrûléeCrème brûlée, also known as burnt cream, is a dessert consisting of a rich custard base topped with a contrasting layer of hard caramel. It is normally served at room temperature.
Crème Fraiche A naturally thickened fresh cream that has a sharp, tangy flavor and rich texture. This is an expensive item to buy, but a good substitute can be made by mixing heavy cream with uncultured buttermilk and allowed to stand, well covered, in a tepid place until thickened. (Not the same as sour cream)
Cremini MushroomsCremini mushrooms look a lot like standard white button mushrooms, just brown. While the two are interchangeable in recipes, creminis have a slightly denser texture and deeper flavor than button mushrooms. Many people don't know that creminis are, in fact, baby portabellas (or, portabellas are just overgrown creminis!). They are especially delicious with wild rice, either in a pilaf or soup.
Crêpe SuzetteCrêpe Suzette is a French dessert consisting of a crêpe with beurre Suzette, a sauce of caramelized sugar and butter, tangerine or orange juice, zest, and Grand Marnier or orange Curaçao liqueur on top, served flambé.
CrépinettesA crépinette is a small, flattened sausage, sometimes referred to as a sausage parcel. It is similar in shape to a sausage patty, circular, and flatten with meat. It is made from minced or ground pork, turkey, veal, lamb or chicken, and can even be made from truffles. Crépinettes are wrapped in caul fat, rather than wrapped in a casing. It is usually cooked with an outer coating of bread and sautéed in butter.
CrostiniToasted bread slices which are brushed with olive oil and served with tomatoes, pumate, cheese, chicken liver mousse, bean puree, or tapenade. These are the Italian version of canapes.
CrouteCroute refers to a pastry covering meat, fish and vegetables; slices of bread or brioche, spread with butter or sauce, and baked until crisp.
CruditéCrudités are traditional French appetizers comprising sliced or whole raw vegetables which are sometimes dipped in a vinaigrette or other dipping sauce. Crudités often include celery sticks, carrot sticks, bell pepper strips, broccoli, cauliflower, and asparagus spears; sometimes olives depending on local customs.
CrudoIn Italian, "crudo" means "raw". In Italian cuisine this word can be used with a lot of food: "pesce crudo" means "raw fish", "carne cruda" means "raw meat" for example the Steak Tartare, is made with "carne cruda", and more.
CuminAvailable in seed and ground forms, cumin is the dried, pale green seed (like caraway) from a member of the parsley family. Cumin is often used in Mexican and Middle Eastern dishes. Cumin has a nutty, warm flavor.
CurdCurds are a dairy product obtained by curdling (coagulating) milk with rennet or an edible acidic substance such as lemon juice or vinegar, and then draining off the liquid portion. The increased acidity causes the milk proteins (casein) to tangle into solid masses, or curds. The remaining liquid, which contains only whey proteins, is the whey. (Cottage chese is an example of curd).
CurrantsZante currants are very small and intensely flavoured. They can be eaten raw, especially when ripe, when they are sweet to the taste. They may also be referred to as table grapes for this purpose. When dried, they are often called "dried currants" or just "currants", and in this form are used in cooking, especially baking and are a major ingredient in currant slice (or currant square) and currant cake. Unlike blackcurrants, Zante currants are not a significant source of vitamin C.
CustardA traditional British dessert sauce made with egg yolks, sugar and milk and/or cream, flavoured with vanilla. The key thing when making custard is to heat it just enough to thicken, but not too much so that it curdles. A neat trick is to add a little cornflour which will help stabilise the eggs.
CuvéeCuvée is a French wine term derived from cuve, meaning vat or tank. The term cuvée is used with several different meanings, more or less based on the concept of a tank of wine put to some purpose:
On wine labels to denote wine of a specific blend or batch. Since the usage of the term cuvée for this purpose is unregulated, and most wines will have been stored in a vat or tank at some stage of their production, the presence of the word cuvée on a label of an arbitrary producer is no guarantee of its (superior) quality. However, in the range of discerning producers who market both regular blends and blends called "cuvée...", the cuvée-labeled wines will usually be special blends or selected vats of higher quality, at least in comparison to that producer's regular wine(s). Particularly terms like "cuvée speciale", or "tête de cuvée" (the latter especially in Sauternes AOC) should indicate higher quality. In this context, higher-quality than ordinary cuvées are often referred to as "reserve wines", while a cuvée lower in quality than the main one is referred to as a "second wine". In some regions, the term cuvée is used to specifically indicate a blend, i.e., a wine produced from a mixture of several grape varieties, rather than a varietal wine. This is especially true outside of France. In Champagne and sometimes in other regions producing sparkling wines by the traditional method, the cuvée also refers to the best grape juice from gentle pressing of the grapes. In Champagne, the cuvée is the first 2,050 litres of grape juice from 4,000 kg of grapes (a marc), while the following 500 litres are known as the taille (tail), and is expected to give wines of a coarser character. Many Champagne producers pride themselves on only using the cuvée in their wine. The term can also be applied to beer and ale or chocolate to refer to a batch that is blended by the manufacturers to produce a certain taste. Many lambics and gueuzes, sour beers with wine-like characteristics, are marketed as "cuvee". When used of beer, ale, or chocolate, the term has no defined meaning, but is meant to evoke images of higher quality, similar to the use of "reserve" as a designation for wine in areas where the term is not regulated by law.
DacquoiseA dacquoise is a dessert cake made with layers of almond and hazelnut meringue and whipped cream or buttercream. It is usually served chilled and accompanied by fruit. A particular form of the dacquoise is the marjolaine, which is long and rectangular and combines almond and hazelnut meringue layers with chocolate buttercream.The term dacquoise can also refer to the nut meringue layer itself.
DaikonDaikon, or white radish, is a mild-flavoured, very large, white East Asian radish with a wide variety of culinary uses.
DashiDashi (出汁, だし) is a class of soup and cooking stock used in Japanese cuisines. Dashi forms the base for miso soup, clear broth, noodle broth, and many kinds of simmering liquid. The most common form of dashi is a simple broth or fish stock made by heating water containing kombu (edible kelp) and kezurikatsuo (shavings of katsuobushi - preserved, fermented bonito) to near-boiling, then straining the resultant liquid. The element of umami, considered one of the five basic tastes in Japan, is introduced into dashi from the use of katsuobushi. Katsuobushi is especially high in sodium inosinate, which is identified as one source of umami.
DatesDry or soft dates are eaten out-of-hand, or may be pitted and stuffed with fillings such as almonds, walnuts, candied orange and lemon peel, tahini, marzipan or cream cheese. Pitted dates are also referred to as stoned dates. Partially dried pitted dates may be glazed with glucose syrup for use as a snack food. Dates can also be chopped and used in a range of sweet and savory dishes, from tajines (tagines) in Morocco to puddings, ka'ak (types of Arab cookies) and other dessert items. Date nut bread, a type of cake, is very popular in the United States, especially around holidays.
DauphineThe name for little puffs made of potato puree, that are mixed with choux paste and deep fried.
DauphinoiseThe name of a potato gratin with lots of cream and garlic, all topped with Gruyere cheese. The potatoes are sliced, layered in a baking dish and then baked au gratin with garlic, butter and cream. Variations on the Potatoes Dauphinoise recipe can include eggs and cheese.
Demerara SugarThis pale-coloured and mild-tasting raw cane sugar is named after its place of origin – Demerara, in Guyana – but it is now imported from various other country, such as Jamaica, Malawi and Mauritius. It has large sparkling golden crystals and a crunchy texture. Traditionally used to sweeten coffee, it’s perfect for sprinkling but can also be used for baking, particularly in things that need extra crunchiness such as crumbles, cheesecake bases, flapjacks and biscuits.
DillBoth the leaves and the seeds from this feathery frond plant are used in cooking. Both have a sharp taste, but Dill Weed is mellower and fresher than Dill Seed. Dill is often added to cold salads and dips, hot potato dishes, and delicate meats.
DitaliniDitalini is a type of pasta resembling short (but wide) "tubes".
DolcelatteLiterally ‘sweet milk’ in Italian, this soft, blue-veined cows’ milk cheese from Lombardy was developed as a milder version of traditional Gorgonzola (hence it’s also sometimes known as Gorgonzola Dolce). It’s renowned for its soft, creamy flavour.
Dutch OvenA Dutch oven is a thick-walled (usually cast iron) cooking pot with a tight-fitting lid. Dutch ovens have been used as cooking vessels for hundreds of years. They are called casserole dishes in English speaking countries other than the USA ("casserole" means "pot" in French), and cocottes in French. Dutch ovens are well suited for long, slow cooking, such as in making roasts, stews, and casseroles.
Duxelle MushroomsFinely chopped mushrooms that are usually cooked in butter with shallots and wine. When cooked dry, duxelle make a good filling for omelets, fish, and meat. They may also be moistened with wine or broth and served as a sauce. Duxelle are also flavored with fresh herbs and brandy or Madeira.
EdamThe quintessential Dutch cheese is made from cows’ milk, and has a firm, elastic, pale-yellow interior with a sweet, slightly nutty flavour. The whole cheeses are spherical, and those intended for export are coated with coloured wax. Edam is available in a wide range of flavours, and made throughout North West Europe, although Edam from the Dutch port of the same name is protected by a European PDO mark. It melts well, and is a popular ingredient in cookery. In its homeland, Edam is traditionally served at the end of a meal with pale ale.
Empanada(called pastel in Brazilian Portuguese) is a stuffed bread or pastry baked or fried in many countries in Southern Europe, Latin America, and parts of Southeast Asia. The name comes from the Galician, Portuguese and Spanish verb empanar, meaning to wrap or coat in bread.
Emulsion Emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (nonmixable). Examples of emulsions include vinaigrettes, milk, and mayonnaise.
En PapilloteEn papillote (French for "in parchment"), or al cartoccio in Italian, is a method of cooking in which the food is put into a folded pouch or parcel and then baked. The parcel is typically made from folded parchment paper, but other material, such as a paper bag or aluminium foil, may be used. The parcel holds in moisture to steam the food.
EscabecheEscabeche is a typical Mediterranean cuisine which refers to a dish of either poached or fried fish (escabeche of chicken or pork is common in Spain) marinated in an acidic mixture before serving, and to the marinade itself.
EscabecheEscabeche is a typical Mediterranean cuisine which refers to a dish of either poached or fried fish marinated in an acidic mixture before serving, and to the marinade itself. The dish is common in Spain and Latin America, and popular in Catalonia, Portugal, Provence and the Philippines. Influences of the dish appear as far as Asia-Pacific with adjustments to local food staples. It is usually served cold after marinating in a refrigerator overnight or longer. The acid in the marinade is usually vinegar, but can also include citrus juice. Escabeche is a popular presentation of canned or potted preserved fish, such as tuna, bonito or sardines. In the New World, versions of the basic marinade are often used with other foods than fish and meats, for example cassava or green bananas and chicken gizzards (Puerto Rico), jalapeño peppers (Mexico), etc. The origin of the word escabeche is Persian, and was brought to Spain by the Arabs during the Moorish conquests. The word derives from al-sikbaj, the name of a popular meat dish cooked in a sweet and sour sauce, usually vinegar and honey or date molasses.
EscaroleEscarole is a variety of endive whose leaves are broader, paler and less bitter than other members of the endive family. In taste - but not color - it is almost indistinguishable from radicchio.
EspeletteThe Espelette pepper (French: Piment d'Espelette) is a variety of chili pepper that is cultivated in the French commune of Espelette, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, traditionally the northern territory of the Basque people. On 1 June 2000, it was classified as an AOC product and was confirmed as an APO product on 22 August 2002. After first being used medicinally, it subsequently became popular for preparing condiments and for the conservation of meat and ham. It is now a cornerstone of Basque cuisine, where it has gradually replaced black pepper and it is a key ingredient in piperade. This pepper attains only a grade of 4,000 on the Scoville scale and therefore can be considered not hot. It can be purchased as festoons of fresh or dried peppers, as ground pepper, or puréed or pickled in jars.
Eureka LemonThe Eureka grows year-round and abundantly. This is the common supermarket lemon, also known as "Four seasons" (Quatre Saisons) because of its ability to produce fruit and flowers together throughout the year. This variety is also available as a plant to domestic customers.
FarfalleAlso called bow-ties or butterflies. They come in small, medium and large. Their large, flat surface makes them best for tomato, ,meat and vegetable sauces.
FarinaFarina is a cereal food, frequently described as mild-tasting, usually served warm, made from cereal grains (usually semolina). In contemporary American English use, it is usually referred to as Cream of Wheat or Malt-O-Meal, which are brands of farina as stated on their packaging. Wheat farina is a carbohydrate-rich food, often cooked in boiling water and served warm for breakfast, or cooked with milk and made into semolina pudding. It is used as an ingredient in many dishes and in processed foods such as breakfast cereals and pasta.
Fava BeansVicia faba, also known as the broad bean, fava bean, faba bean, field bean, bell bean, or tic bean, is a species of bean (Fabaceae) native to North Africa, southwest and south Asia, and extensively cultivated elsewhere. Preparing favas involves first removing the beans from their pods, then parboiling the beans to loosen their exterior coating, and removing that before cooking. The beans can be fried, causing the skin to split open, and then salted and/or spiced to produce a savory, crunchy snack. These are popular in China, Malaysia, Colombia, Peru (habas saladas), Guatemala (habas), Mexico (habas con chile), Gilan (North of Iran) and Thailand (where their name means "open-mouth nut"). Broad bean purée with wild chicory is a typical Puglian dish in Italy.
FennelAll parts of the fennel plant are used in various ways in cooking. Fennel seed is similar to anise but is sweeter and more aromatic. It's used in chili and soups. Fennel leaves have a sweet flavor well suited to fish and veal sauces.
FettuccineFettuccine is a type of long, flat pasta approximately 6.5 millimeters wide.
FiddleheadsFiddleheads or Fiddlehead greens are the furled fronds of a young fern, harvested for use as a vegetable. Fiddleheads have been part of traditional diets in much of Northern France since the beginning of the Middle Ages, Asia as well as among Native Americans for centuries.
FigsThe common fig (Ficus carica) is a species of flowering plant in the genus Ficus, from the family Moraceae, known as the common fig. Figs can be eaten fresh or dried, and used in jam-making. Most commercial production is in dried or otherwise processed forms, since the ripe fruit does not transport well, and once picked does not keep well.
Figs (Adriatic)These pale green to pale yellow figs are sometimes called "white figs" for their light color. They can also be sold as "candy striped figs" when striped. They have bright pink to brilliant red insides and an extra-sweet flavor. They are harvested in June and again in August.
Figs (Black Mission)Black Mission figs are extremely sweet (sometimes they even ooze a bit of syrup) and thus are perfect for serving plain or with yogurt or tangy fresh cheese (such as marscapone, fromage blanc, or farmers cheese) for dessert. They have blackish-purple skin and dark pink flesh.
Figs (Brown Turkey)Brown Turkey figs have brownish-dark purple skin, a milder flavor than other figs, and are noticeably less sweet than the similar-looking Black Mission figs. Brown Turkey figs work well in salads or in desserts where a sweetener will be used.
Figs (Calimyrna)Calimyrna figs are comparatively large, with slightly golden skin and a pinkish flesh that has a distinctive nutty flavor.
Five SpiceFive-spice powder is a mixture of five spices used primarily in Chinese cuisine but also used in other Asian and Arabic cookery. The mix usually contains: star anise, cloves, Chinese cinnamon, Sichuan pepper, and fennel seeds. Five spice may be used with fatty meats such as pork and duck. It is used as a spice rub for chicken, duck, pork and seafood, in red cooking recipes, or added to the breading for fried foods.
FocacciaFocaccia is a flat oven-baked Italian bread, which may be topped with herbs or other ingredients. Focaccia doughs are similar in style and texture to pizza doughs, consisting of high-gluten flour, oil, water, salt and yeast. It is typically rolled out or pressed by hand into a thick layer of dough and then baked in a stone-bottom or hearth oven. Bakers often puncture the bread with a knife to relieve bubbling on the surface of the bread.
FondutaFonduta is a specialty of Piedmont and Valle d’Aosta. It is made with fontina, a young cow's milk cheese that melts much like mozzarella. Its taste is similar to other Alpine cheeses, like Gruyère and Emmental from Switzerland. The big difference between Swiss fondue and fonduta is that the Italian recipe does not include wine, garlic, or cornstarch as thickener. Instead fonduta is made with butter, milk, and egg yolks as thickener. It comes together much like custard and is made in a bain-marie, a double boiler.
FontinaA very popular semi-soft Italian cows'-milk cheese, fontina is deep golden-yellow in colour with a reddish-brown rind. It has a firm, slightly springy texture and melts easily, so is great to cook with. Its flavour is delicate which makes it a good dessert cheese. When fully matured, it can be grated and used like parmesan.
Fougasse / FougassetteTraditional breads from Nice and the surrounding villages in Provence. These breads, under the same name come, with a wide variety of recipes, and have now spread all over Provence. The fougasse was originally a crusty bread made of baguette dough brushed with olive oil and flavored with orange zest. Fougasse's origins are claimed by the Italians, and they claim it is based on their focaccio breads. In Provence, as elsewhere, no recipe is written in stone, and most Fougasse breads appear to have only a limited connection to their Italian ancestors.
FrangipaneFrangipane is a filling made from or flavored like almonds. This filling can be used in a variety of ways including cakes, tarts and other assorted pastries. Originally designated as a custard tart flavored by almonds or pistachios it came later to designate a filling that could be used in a variety of confections and baked goods.These days it is normally made of butter, sugar, eggs, and ground almonds: beat butter and sugar together until pale and fluffy, gradually beat in the eggs, fold in the ground almonds.
Frantoio Olive OilThis is a green olive oil characterized by intense olive aroma and taste accompanied by notes of almond and recently-cut grass. The spicy note is prevalent in the bitter taste. Due to its solid taste and persistence of flavor it is defined as strong personality olive oil. It is recommended on vegetable soups, green salads, bruschetta, grilled and fried vegetables.
FregulaFregula (also fregola) is a type of pasta from Sardinia. It is similar to Israeli couscous. Fregula comes in varying sizes, but typically consists of semolina dough that has been rolled into balls 2-3 mm in diameter and toasted in an oven. A typical preparation of fregula is to simmer it in a tomato-based sauce with clams.
Fresno PepperBright green, changing to orange and red when fully matured, Fresno chilies have a conical shape - about 2 inches long and 1 inch in diameter at the stem end. Similar to jalapeno peppers, but with thinner walls, they're great in salsas. Fresnos are available in the summer. the hotter red ones come out in the fall.
FricasséeFricassée is a method of cooking meat in which the meat is cut up, sautéed, and braised, and served with its sauce, traditionally a white sauce.
FricoA frico, known in America as a cheese crisp, is an Italian food, typical of Friuli, which consists of a wafer of shredded cheese with a bit of flour, baked or fried until crisp. The cheeses include Montasio, Parmesan or mozzarella. Frico is often used as garnish for soups or stews.
Fritto Misto
FusilliSpiral-shaped pasta that comes in plain, wholewheat and flavoured varieties. Fusilli tricolore comes in three colours: white (plain egg pasta), green (coloured with spinach), and red (coloured with tomato). The twists and turns are good for holding rich, chunky pasta sauces. Fusilli bucatti has slightly rounder, tighter spirals than regular fusilli.
GalangalA root spice related to ginger, which has a musky flavor reminiscent of saffron. It is found dried whole or in slices, and also in powder.
Garam MasalaAn Indian spice mix, the first part of the word actually means "hot" - a telling translation. Traditionally, the blend includes: black pepper, cinnamon, cloves, coriander, cumin, cardamom, dried chiles, fennel, mace and nutmeg.
GarganelliGarganelli are a type of egg-based pasta formed by rolling a flat, square noodle into a tubular shape. They can be made from smooth pasta or a ridged variant. While garganelli are very similar to penne, they differ in that a "flap" is clearly visible where one corner of the pasta square adheres to the rest, as opposed to a perfect cylinder in penne.
GastriqueGastrique is caramelized sugar, deglazed with vinegar, used as a flavoring for sauces. It is used to flavor sauces such as tomato sauce, savory fruit sauces, and other sweet and sour sauces such as the classic orange sauce for duck à l'orange. Nowadays, the term is frequently used to refer to any thus-flavored sauce itself, e.g. citrus gastrique, mango gastrique.An agrodolce (sweet and sour) is a similar sauce found in Italian cuisine.
GazpachoGazpacho is usually a tomato-based, vegetable soup, traditionally served cold, originating in the southern Spanish region of Andalucía. Gazpacho is widely consumed in Spanish cuisine, as well as in neighboring Portugal, where it is known as gaspacho. Gazpacho is mostly consumed during the summer months, due to its refreshing qualities and cold serving temperature.
GewürztraminerGewürztraminer is an aromatic wine grape variety, used in white wines, and performs best in cooler climates.Gewürztraminer is a variety with a pink to red skin colour, which makes it a "white wine grape" as opposed to the blue to black-skinned varieties commonly referred to as "red wine grapes". The variety has high natural sugar and the wines are white and usually off-dry, with a flamboyant bouquet of lychees.
GingerGinger is a warming, pungent root that is crushed and powdered to make the spice. Ginger is used in baking, as with gingerbread, and in many Asian dishes.
GnocchiGnocchi means "lumps" in Italian, and refers to a thick, pillowy dumpling. Available fresh, frozen, or dried, the pasta is made from a dough based on potatoes, flour, farina, or semolina, which is rolled into long cylinder shapes, cut into bite-sized pieces, and sometimes decorated with forked ridges. They are boiled, baked, or sautéed, then served in a tomato, pesto, cheese, or butter-based sauce. Smaller forms are referred to as gnocchetti.
GnudiGnudi (pronounced "nu-dee") is a type of gnocchi made from ricotta cheese and a little bit of flour. The result is a dumpling that some describe as "nude" ravioli, or filling without the pasta — that is to say, light, fluffy, and creamy.
GnudiGnudi is a type of gnocchi made from ricotta cheese and a little bit of flour. The result is a dumpling that some describe as "nude" ravioli, or filling without the pasta — that is to say, light, fluffy, and creamy.
GorganzolaGorgonzola is a traditional, creamery and co-operative, blue cheese. The greenish-blue penicillin mould imparts a sharp, spicy flavor and provides an excellent contrast to the rich, creamy cheese. Gorgonzola is made in the northern Italian village, according to which the cheese has its name, either from unpasteurized or pasteurized milk to which the mould is added. At about four weeks the cheeses are pierced with thick needles to encourage the spread of mould. Gorgonzola ripens in three to six months. The cheese is usually wrapped in foil to keep it moist. Its color ranges from white to straw-yellow with an unmistakable marbled green or bluish-green mould. The taste ranges from mild to sharp, depending on age.
GougèreA savory pastry made of choux paste flavored with cheese. The cheese is commonly grated Gruyère, Comté, or Emmentaler. This may be made in individual puffs or piped into a ring of puffs, which is served with a pool of sauce in the center of the ring.
Grand MarnierGrand Marnier Cordon Rouge is an orange-flavored brandy liqueur created in 1880 by Alexandre Marnier-Lapostolle. It is made from a blend of Cognac brandy, distilled essence of bitter orange, and sugar. Grand Marnier Cordon Rouge is 40% alcohol. Aside from Cordon Rouge, the Grand Marnier line includes other liqueurs, most of which can be consumed "neat" as a cordial or a digestif, and can be used in mixed drinks and desserts. In France this kind of use is the most popular, especially with Crêpes Suzette and "crêpes au Grand Marnier".
GranitaGranita (in Italian also granita siciliana) is a semi-frozen dessert made from sugar, water and various flavorings. Although its texture varies from coarse to smooth, it is always different from the one of an ice cream (which is creamier), and from the one of a sorbet (which is more compact); this makes granita distinct and unique.
GrecqueFoods that are prepared in the style of Greece. This is usually used for dishes with lemon, garlic, and olive oil. But the addition of tomatoes, peppers, and fennel often allows a dish to be called à la grecque.
Greek SaladGreek salad: the so-called Greek salad is known in Greece as village/country salad (horiatiki) and is essentially a tomato salad with cucumber, red onion, feta cheese, and kalamata olives, dressed with olive oil. In Cyprus it contains also cracked wheat (bulgur), spring onions instead of red onions, and lemon juice.
Green PeppercornsThese are berries that are picked long before maturity in the green stage and either air-dried, freeze-dried or pickled in brine to prevent fermentation. They are aromatic with a fresh flavor, but are not pungent. In the dried form they are considered essential for French, Creole and some Thai cooking. This is the also the pepper called for in a traditional "peppercorn" sauce.
GremolataA mixture of chopped parsley, garlic, and lemon peel. This is added to stews at the end of their cooking time to add a pungency to the dish. Used in some recipes for osso buco à la Milanese, and Hungarian goulash.
Grenache (Red)Grenache is one of the most widely planted red wine grape varieties in the world. Wines made from Grenache tend to lack acid, tannin and color, and is usually blended with other varieties such as Syrah, Carignan, Tempranillo and Cinsaut. It is generally spicy, berry-flavored and soft on the palate with a relatively high alcohol content, but it needs careful control of yields for best results. Characteristic flavor profiles on Grenache include red fruit flavors (raspberry and strawberry) with a subtle, white pepper spice note. Grenache wines are highly prone to oxidation with even young examples having the potential to show browning (or "bricking") coloration that can be noticed around the rim when evaluate the wine at an angle in the glass. As Grenache ages the wines tend to take on more leather and tar flavors.
Grenache (White)Grenache blanc is a variety of white wine grape that is related to the red grape Grenache. It is mostly found in Rhône wine blends and in northeast Spain. Its wines are characterized by high alcohol and low acidity, with citrus and or herbaceous notes.
GribicheSauce gribiche is a mayonnaise-style cold egg sauce in the French cuisine, made by emulsifying hard-boiled egg yolks and mustard with a neutral oil like canola or grapeseed. The sauce is finished with chopped pickled cucumbers, capers, parsley, chervil and tarragon. It also includes hard-boiled egg whites cut in a julienne.
GrissiniGrissini are generally pencil-sized sticks of crisp, dry bread originating in Turin and the surrounding area in Italy.
GruyèreGruyère is named after a Swiss village. It is a traditional, creamy, unpasteurized, semi-soft cheese. The natural, rusty brown rind is hard, dry, and pitted with tiny holes. The cheese is darker yellow than Emmental but the texture is more dense and compact. Slightly grainy, the cheese has a wonderful complexity of flavors- at first fruity, later becomes more earthy and nutty.
GyozaGyoza, also known as jiaozi, (or if fried, pot sticker) is a type of dumpling commonly eaten across Eastern, Central and Western Asia. Though commonly considered part of Chinese cuisine, jiaozi are also commonly eaten in many other Asian countries. Jiaozi typically consists of a ground meat and/or vegetable filling wrapped into a thinly rolled piece of dough, which is then sealed by pressing the edges together or by crimping. Jiaozi should not be confused with wonton; jiaozi has a thicker skin and a relatively flatter, more oblate, double-saucer like shape (similar in shape to ravioli), and is usually eaten with a soy-vinegar dipping sauce (and/or hot chili sauce); while wontons have thinner skin, have square skins, and are usually served in broth. The dough for the jiaozi and wonton wrapper also consist of different ingredients.
Habanero PepperOf hot peppers that are commonly used, the Habanero chili is recognized as the hottest. This pepper, which can be any color from green to yellow to pink, is usually only around three centimeters in length. The Scoville Heat Index for the Habanero chili can range from 150,000 to 350,000.
HalloumiA firm, slightly springy white cheese from Cyprus, traditionally made with sheeps’ milk, although these days mass-produced varieties often use cows’ milk. In texture, halloumi is similar to a firm mozzarella, making it a popular ingredient in Middle Eastern cooking. Unlike mozzarella, however, it has a strong salty flavour, particularly when preserved in brine.
HamachiThe Japanese hamachi (also known as amberjack or yellowtail) is a bony fish in the family Carangidae. It is native to the northwest Pacific Ocean, from Japan to Hawaii and Baja California. It is greatly appreciated in Japan, where it is called hamachi or buri. They are eaten either cooked or raw, and are a seasonal favourite in the colder months when the meat must have higher fat content.
HarissaHarissa is a Tunisian hot chili sauce whose main ingredients are piri piri (type of chili pepper), serrano peppers and other hot chili peppers and spices and herbs such as garlic paste, coriander, red chili powder, caraway as well as some vegetable or olive oil.
HavartiHavarti is a traditional, creamy, and semi-soft cheese. It is a simple, washed-rind cheese with irregular holes throughout. There is an enriched version, with added cream, which is softer and feels more luxurious in the mouth. There is also a version with caraway seeds. Havarti is named after the farm in Denmark where Hanne Nielsen first made it.
Herbes de ProvenceA mixture of dried herbs essential to French cooking, herbes de Provence usually includes basil, fennel seed, lavender, marjoram, rosemary, sage, summer savory and thyme.
Hollandaise SauceIs an emulsion of egg yolk and liquid butter, usually seasoned with lemon juice, salt, and a little white pepper or cayenne pepper.
HuckleberryHuckleberry is a wild, blue-black berry that closely resembles the blueberry. The huckleberry, however, has 10 small hard seeds in the center that give it a crunch texture, whereas the blueberry has many tiny soft seeds that are barely noticeable. Also, the huckleberry has a thicker skin and is slightly less sweet and more astringent. Huckleberries are not cultivated commercially, so you will have to find them in the wild. The entire fruit is edible, no need to remove the seeds.
Iberico HamJamón ibérico ("Iberian ham", also called pata negra and carna negra; "black hoof") is a type of cured ham produced mostly in Spain, but also in some Portuguese regions where it is called presunto ibérico. Jamón ibérico, which only accounts for about 8% of Spain's cured-ham production, is very expensive and not widely available abroad.
Immersion CirculatorAn immersion circulator is an electrically powered device that circulates and heats a warm fluid kept at an accurate and stable temperature.
InfuseTo steep an aromatic ingredient in hot liquid until the flavor has been extracted and absorbed by the liquid. Teas are infusions. Milk or cream can also be infused with flavor before being used in custards or sauces.
Italian IceItalian ice, also known as water ice, is a sweetened frozen dessert made with fruit (often from concentrates, juices or purées) or other natural or artificial food flavorings, similar to sorbet. Italian ice is not shaved ice that is flavored; rather, it is made by the same process by which ice cream is made: freezing the ingredients while mixing them. Italian ice differs from sherbet in that it does not contain dairy or egg ingredients, though it may contain egg white.
Jalapeño PepperJalapeño are usually either red or green and are about two to three inches long. Their Scoville Heat Index is typically around 5,000, however jalapeños can range anywhere from 2,000 to 8,000. These peppers, when used sparingly, add just the right amount of spicy flavor to most Mexican dishes.
Jamón ibéricoSee Iberico Ham.
JiaoziSee Gyoza
JicamaNicknamed yam bean and Mexican potato; a low-calorie thick brown-skinned root vegetable with white crunchy flesh that tastes like a cross between a water chestnut and a potato; after the fibrous skin has been pared away, jicama flesh will not discolor; primarily used in salads; when eaten raw, it is usually sprinkled with lime juice and chili powder; the smaller jicama are the most sweet and moist. Its flavor is mild and sweet. It is a fair source for vitamin C and potassium.
JusJus is a rich, lightly reduced stock used as a sauce for roasted meats. Many of these are started by deglazing the roasting pan, then reduced to achieve the rich flavor desired.
KohlrabiThis knobbly bulbous brassica has a peculiar, alien-like look with its pale green colour and strange protruding stems. The name literally translates as 'cabbage turnip', but this belies its excellent juicy crispness and light flavour, which is slightly sweet and milder than both a cabbage and a turnip. This is a two-in-one vegetable - the leaves taste almost as good as the kohlrabi itself.
LangoustineLangoustine, or scampi, is a slim, orange-pink lobster which grows up to 25 cm (10 in) long.
Leccino Olive OilLeccino is a southern favorite from the region of Puglia. It is medium bodied with sweet, grassy tones and a very smooth finish. The Leccino's slight bitterness enhances many dishes without overpowering them, making it an ideal cooking oil. It’s also delicious for dipping bread, dressing pasta salads, drizzling over fresh tomatoes, marinating fish and meats, and punching up summer salads.
LeeksThe leek is a vegetable that belongs, along with onion and garlic, to the genus Allium. Leeks have a mild onion-like taste. In its raw state, the vegetable is crunchy and firm. The edible portions of the leek are the white base of the leaves (above the roots and stem base), the light green parts, and to a lesser extent the dark green parts of the leaves. One of the most popular uses is for adding flavor to stock. The dark green portion is usually discarded because it has a tough texture, but it can be sauteed or added to stock.
LentilsLentils are petite legume seeds that come whole or split in a variety of colors. Popular throughout the world, brown European lentils are the most common, if not the most delicious, variety. Because they tend to grow mushy when cooked, they are often used as a base for lentil soup.
LimoncelloLimoncello is an Italian lemon liqueur mainly produced in Southern Italy, especially in the region around the Gulf of Naples, the Sorrentine Peninsula and the coast of Amalfi and islands of Procida, Ischia and Capri. Traditionally, it is made from the zest of Femminello St. Teresa lemons, also known as Sorrento lemons or Sfusato Lemons. Lemon zest, or peels without the pith, are steeped in grain alcohol until the oil is released. The resulting yellow liquid is then mixed with simple syrup.
Lisbon LemonLisbon lemon is one of the most widely-grown lemons in California and is planted extensively throughout the citrus-growing regions of the world. Lisbon trees produce several crops per year, but the main crop is winter and early spring. The fruits are medium in size, oblong, with a prominent nipple. The rind is slightly textured and yellow at full maturity. The flesh is pale greenish-yellow, low-seeded, and very acidic. There are many named selections of Lisbon lemon, with individual characteristics that distinguish them from the original clone.
LovageLovage is an erect, herbaceous, perennial plant growing to 1.8–2.5 m tall, with a basal rosette of leaves and stems with further leaves, the flowers being produced in umbels at the top of the stems. The leaves can be used in salads, or to make soup or season broths, and the roots can be eaten as a vegetable or grated for use in salads. Its flavor and smell is somewhat similar to celery. Lovage tea can be applied to wounds as an antiseptic, or drunk to stimulate digestion. The seeds can be used as a spice, similar to fennel seeds.
Lyonnaise SauceA classic French sauce preparation made with sauteed onions, white wine and demi-glace. The sauce is strained before being served with meats and sometime poultry.
MacerationIn food preparation, maceration is softening or breaking into pieces using a liquid. Raw, dried or preserved fruit or vegetables are soaked in a liquid to soften the food and/or absorb the flavor of the liquid into the food. In the case of fresh fruit, particularly soft fruit such as strawberries and raspberries, they are often just sprinkled with sugar, (and sometimes a little salt) then left to sit and release their own juices. This process makes the food more flavorful and easier to chew and digest. Maceration is often confused with marination, which is the process of soaking foods in a seasoned, often acidic, liquid before cooking. Some herbal preparations call for maceration, as it is one way to extract delicate or highly volatile herbal essences "cold" and thus preserve their signature more accurately. Sometimes a cooking oil is used as the liquid for maceration – especially olive or some other vegetable oil.
MalbecMalbec is a purple grape variety used in making red wine. The grapes tend to have an inky dark color and robust tannins, and are known as one of the six grapes allowed in the blend of red Bordeaux wine.
MangosteenMangosteen is a pretty, mandarine-sized, purple-skinned fruit with a thick velvety stalk. Its waxy skin is very thick: inside lie 5-7, juicy white segments. The fruit segments have a soft, melting texture and delicious fragrant flavour and occasionally contain seeds.
Marcona AlmondsThe 'Marcona' almond cultivar is recognizably different from other almonds, and is marketed by name. The kernel is short, round, relatively sweet, and delicate in texture. It has been grown in Spain for a long time and its origin is unknown; the tree is very productive, and the shell of the nut is very hard. 'Marcona' almonds are traditionally served after being lightly fried in oil, and are used by Spanish chefs to prepare a dessert called turrón.
MarengoA chicken stew made with wine, tomatoes, and garlic. The stew is served over toast, garnished with crayfish and fried eggs. The modern versions of this omit the eggs and substitute shrimp for the crayfish. Of course, other liberties have been taken with this recipe to include black olives, peppers, and veal.
MarjoramThe leaf of a plant member of the mint family, marjoram is indigenous to the Mediterranean and is used in flavoring meat dishes. It has a delicate sweet flavor and a bold floral aroma, and helps to deepen the flavor of foods like spinach and mushrooms.
MasalaMasala is a term used in India and Asia denoting a mixture of spices. A masala can either be a combination of dried (and usually dry roasted) spices, or a paste (such as vindaloo masala) made from a mixture of spices and other ingredients—often garlic, ginger, onions and chilli paste. Masalas are used extensively in Indian cuisine to add spice and flavor.
MascarponeMascarpone cheese is a rich, creamy cow’s milk cheese that is somewhere between butter and cream cheese in terms of both texture and flavor. It is smoother than cream cheese, but thicker and much less “melty” than butter. It has a very delicate, subtle flavor, more like butter than cream cheese. The cheese originally comes from Italy and is popular in many Italian dishes, including tiramisu and cheesecake. It is also a great addition to some pasta dishes – especially filled or baked pasta dishes, like lasagna and ravioli – as it adds a richness that other cheese can’t quite match.
MeringueMeringue is a type of dessert, often associated with Swiss and French cuisine, made from whipped egg whites and sugar, and occasionally an acid such as cream of tartar or a small amount of vinegar. A binding agent such as cornstarch or gelatin may also be added. Meringues are often flavoured with vanilla and a small amount of almond or coconut extract, although if these extracts are based on an oil infusion, an excess of fat from the oil may inhibit the egg whites from forming a foam. They are light, airy and sweet confections. French meringue is the method best known to home cooks: fine white sugar is beaten into egg whites. Italian meringue is made with boiling sugar syrup, instead of caster sugar. This leads to a much more stable soft meringue which can be used in various pastries without collapsing. In an Italian meringue, a hot sugar syrup is whipped into softly whipped egg whites till stiff. This type of meringue is safe to use without cooking. It will not deflate for a long while and can be either used on pies and Baked Alaska, or spread on a sheet and baked for meringues. Swiss meringue is whisked over a bain-marie to warm the egg whites, and then whisked steadily until it cools. This forms a dense, glossy marshmallow-like meringue. It is usually then baked.
MerlotMerlot is a soft, supple wine with nice fruit flavors of plums and blackberries and occasionally mint, chocolate and eucalyptus flavors and aromas. Typically, it is ready to drink earlier than Cabernet Sauvignon, which sometimes needs a few years for its astringent tannins to mellow. Outside of Europe, New World Merlot shines in places like California, Chile and Washington State.
Meunière SauceMeunière sauce contains brown butter, chopped parsley, and lemon.
Mexican ChocolateFlavored with cinnamon, almonds and vanilla, this sweet chocolate is available in Latin markets and some supermarkets. Mexican chocolate has a much grainier texture than other chocolates. It's used in the preparation of a Mexican hot chocolate drink and certain Mexican specialties such as mole poblano, a chile-almond sauce usually served with fowl. One ounce semisweet chocolate, ½ teaspoon ground cinnamon and 1 drop almond extract can be substituted for 1 ounce Mexican chocolate.
Meyer LemonMeyer lemons are not true lemons, but believed to be a cross between a lemon and a mandarin or orange. Compared to regular lemons, Meyer lemons are thinner- and smoother-skinned, rounder in shape, and have a deeper yellow-orange hue. Though not exactly sweet, Meyers are less acidic than regular lemons, and their zest and juice has herbal, even floral undertones that can add a wonderful nuance to any recipe calling for lemons (though if you're substituting them for regular lemons, your recipe may need less sugar than usual).Since they are more delicate, Meyer lemons are harder to ship and are rare at supermarkets, but during their season (winter to early spring), can often be found at specialty grocers.
MezeMeze or mezze is a selection of small dishes served in the Middle East and the Balkans. In Levantine and Caucasian cuisines, and in parts of the Balkans, meze is served at the beginning of all large-scale meals.
MigasMigas is a traditional dish in Spanish cuisine. Originally a breakfast dish that made use of leftover bread or tortas, today migas is a fashionable first course served for lunch and dinner in restaurants in Spain. The ingredients of migas vary across the provinces of Spain. In Extremadura, this dish includes day-old bread soaked in water, garlic, paprika, olive oil, and contains spinach or alfalfa, often served with pan-fried pork ribs. In Teruel, Aragon, migas includes chorizo and bacon, and is often served with grapes. In Tex-Mex cuisine, migas is a traditional breakfast dish consisting of scrambled eggs mixed with strips of corn tortilla, diced onions, sliced chile peppers, diced fresh tomatoes, and cheese, plus various spices and condiments (e.g. salsa or pico de gallo). Migas is typically served with refried beans, and corn or flour tortillas are used to enfold all of the ingredients into tacos.
Mignon / MigonetteThis is a term used to describe coarsely ground pepper used for au poivre preparations and in bouquet garni. This is also used to describe small round pieces of meat or poultry.
Mille-FeuilleAlso known as the Napoleon, is a pastry of French origin. Traditionally, a mille-feuille is made up of three layers of puff pastry (pâte feuilletée), alternating with two layers of pastry cream (crème pâtissière), but sometimes whipped cream, or jam are substituted.
Minestra di FarroA Tuscan soup made with beans, sage, garlic and farro (which is a rice-shaped pasta made from wheat).
MirepoixCan be a combination of celery (either common pascal celery or celeriac), onions, and carrots. Mirepoix, raw, roasted or sautéed with butter or olive oil, is the flavor base for a wide variety of dishes, such as stocks, soups, stews and sauces. (Similar to sofrito)
MirinMirin is a sweetened sake or rice wine with a light syrupy texture, used in Japanese cooking. It gives a mild sweetness to sauces and dishes and is particularly good with grilled foods because the alcohol burns off during cooking, leaving just the sweet taste. If you can't find mirin, use sherry as an alternative.
Mole SauceFrom the Nahuatl meaning "concoction," mole is a rich, dark, reddish-brown sauce usually served with poultry. There are many variations of this spicy Mexican specialty, usually depending on what's in the cook's kitchen. Generally, mole is a smooth, cooked blend of onion, garlic, several varieties of chiles, ground seeds (such as sesame seeds or pumpkin seeds—known as pepitas) and a small amount of mexican chocolate, its best-known ingredient. (Some Americanized mole recipes use bitter chocolate.) The chocolate contributes richness to the sauce without adding overt sweetness.
Moraiolo Olive OilGold-yellow-greenish Olive oil, Moraiolo has a marked fruity/grassy taste mixed with specific notes of artichoke and thistle. The bitter-hot taste component gives this oil a strong personality. For its natural richness of polifenolo (a natural component of any olive oil), Moraiolo’s peculiar fruity-taste lasts longer than in any other types of olive oil. Its use is recommended on legumes, grilled red meats, any type of game and bruschetta.
Morel MushroomMorel is a wild mushroom with a honeycomb cap and hollow stem. These are very dirty mushrooms and must be cleaned carefully. Morels possess a wonderful earthy flavor, making them good candidates for soups, sauces, and fillings. Morels are most readily available dried.
MostardaMostarda (also called mostarda di frutta) is an Italian condiment made of candied fruit and a mustard flavoured syrup. Traditionally mostarda was served with boiled meats, the bollito misto which is a speciality of northern Italian cooking. More recently it has become a popular accompaniment to cheeses.
MuensterMuenster is a creamery, washed-rind cheese made from cows milk. It has a round shape with sticky, orange, washed skin. The cheese is very smooth, fairly soft and has a mildly piquant flavor that can become pungent with regular washings. Muenster is dark yellow with a strong flavor.
MuesliDish of raw rolled oats, coarsely grated apple, nuts and dried fruit served with cream or whole milk.
MuscadelleMuscadelle is a white wine grape variety. It has a simple aroma of grape juice and raisins like grapes of the Muscat family of grapes, but it is unrelated.
MuscatThe Muscat variety of grapes of the species Vitis vinifera is widely grown for wine, raisins and table grapes. Wines made with the Muscat grape are called Moscatel (Spain) and Moscato (Italy). Their color ranges from white to near black. Muscat almost always has a pronounced sweet floral aroma. Muscat grapes are one of the major varieties grown for table wine in Chile, and is a minor variety in California and Italy. In Italy, it is widely used in sweeter sparkling wines like Asti (wine). Their "grapey" quality makes many wines made from Muscat easy to identify. Moscato d'Asti is a lightly sparkling (frizzante) variety of Muscat, made from the Moscato Bianco (Muscat Canelli) grape of the Piedmont region of Italy. This region has a DOCG designation and produces Barbera d'Asti, Dolcetto d’Asti, and Asti. In Lithuania, it is also used for making a sparkling wine called Alita.
Mustard GreensMustard greens are a species of mustard plant. Subvarieties include southern giant curled mustard, which resembles a headless cabbage such as kale, but with a distinct horseradish-mustard flavor. The leaves, the seeds, and the stem of this mustard variety are edible. The plant appears in some form in African, Italian, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and soul food cuisine.
Mustard Seed Mustard seed comes from the brown and white mustard shrubs native to Asia. Brown mustard is more pungent. The spicy taste of whole mustard seed and powdered mustard enhances meat dishes, salad dressings, and the process of pickling.
Naan BreadA flatbread with a slightly puffed and blistered soft crust. It is typically baked in a tandoor - an upright pot-like clay oven with the heat source inside at the bottom - by pressing the dough onto the hot interior surface of the oven. This makes the bread flat, scorched on one side and puffed and blistered on the other. Typical ingredients include wheat flour, water, salt, yeast and yoghurt or milk.
NageNage is the term used in the USA for a flavoured liquid used for poaching delicate foods, typically seafood. A traditional nage is a broth flavoured with white wine, vegetables, and herbs, in which seafood is poached. The liquid is then reduced and thickened with cream and/or butter.
NeufchatelNeufchatel is a traditional, soft-white, table cheese originating from northern Normandy. It has aroma and taste of mushrooms. The rind of this cheese is dry and velvety, while the pate is firm but supple. Unlike other soft-white-rinded cheeses, Neufchatel has a grainy texture. Some lovers of this cheese prefer it when it has been kept until rind develops reddish pigmentation and a smell of ammonia. At this stage, the taste is bitter, salty, and acrid.
NiçoiseNiçoise refers to foods cooked in the style of Nice. These dishes may include garlic, Nicoise olives, anchovies, tomatoes, and green beans. Salad Nicoise is the most famous of all these dishes, consisting of potatoes, olives, green beans, and vinaigrette dressing. Also, a garnish of garlic, tomatoes, capers and lemon.
NoriNori is commonly used as a wrap for sushi and onigiri. It is also a garnish or flavoring in noodle preparations and soups. It is most typically toasted prior to consumption (yaki-nori). A common secondary product is toasted and flavored nori (ajitsuke-nori in), in which a flavoring mixture (variable, but typically soy sauce, spices, and sugar in the Japanese style or sesame oil and salt in the Korean style) is applied in combination with the toasting process. It is also eaten by making it into a soy sauce-flavored paste (nori no tsukudani).
NougatineLa nougatine est une confiserie faite de sucre caramélisé et de menus morceaux d’amandes ou de noix, souvent utilisée en pâtisserie.
NutmegThe tall nutmeg tree produces two spices: nutmeg and mace. Nutmeg comes from the inner brown seed of the tree's "fruit," and is sweeter than mace, made from the outer covering of the seed. Nutmeg is a baking spice, common to fruit dishes, and an essential part of eggnog.
OkraOkra (also known as gumbo), is a tall-growing, warm-season, annual vegetable from the same family as hollyhock, rose of Sharon and hibiscus. The immature pods are used for soups, canning and stews or as a fried or boiled vegetable. The hibiscus like flowers and upright plant (3 to 6 feet or more in height) have ornamental value for backyard gardens.
Olive OilOlive oil has a very distinctive flavor, and has become more prominent in American cooking today. Grades of olive oils are determined by the methods of extraction and the acid content of the resulting oil. Virgin oils are those obtained from the first pressing of the olive without further refinement. The finest olive oil is extra virgin, with an acid content of 1%. Following this are superfine at 1.5%, fine at 3%, and virgin at 4%. Pure olive oils are those which have been extracted by heat. These are of 100% olive oil, but their flavor can result in a harsh, bitter aftertaste.
OlivesThis is the edible fruit of the olive tree. Found in both green (unripe) and black (ripe) forms, each must undergo a process to remove the bitterness found in them. This curing process is done with brine solutions, salt curing, and drying.
OrecchietteOrecchiette is a type of pasta shaped like a bowl or an ear, typical of Southern Italy. The Italian cookbook Il cucchiaio d'argento (with an English translation The Silver Spoon, 2005, Phaidon) suggests that orecchiette are ideal for vegetable sauces.
OreganoLike mint, oregano comes from the dried leaf of a perennial herb. Oregano is peppery with a pungent odor, often used in pizza.. The herb is popular in hearty meat dishes, tomato sauces, and blends well with garlic and lemon.
OrzoOrzo (Italian for "barley"), also risoni (Italian: "big rice"), is a form of short-cut pasta, shaped like a large grain of rice. Orzo can be served alone, as a soup accompaniment, as part of a salad, or baked in a casserole.
Osso BucoOssobuco is a Milanese specialty of cross-cut veal shanks braised with vegetables, white wine and broth. It is often garnished with gremolata and traditionally served with risotto alla milanese. There are two types of ossobuco: a modern version that has tomatoes and the original version which does not. The older version, ossobuco in bianco, is flavored with cinnamon, bay leaf and gremolata. The modern and more popular recipe includes tomatoes, carrots, celery and onions. Gremolata is optional.
OuzaA clear anise-flavored liqueur from Greece. It is generally mixed with water which turns it whitish and opaque.
Ovoli MushroomAmanita caesarea, commonly known in English as Caesar's Mushroom, is a highly regarded edible mushroom in the genus Amanita, native to southern Europe and North Africa. It has a distinctive orange cap, yellow gills and stem. Organic acids have been isolated from this species.
PaellaA Spanish rice dish originating in the town of Valencia. The only ingredients that are necessary for paella are rice, tomatoes, and saffron. Other ingredients are chicken, chorizo, mussels, squid, peppers, and beans. More elaborate preparations include shrimp, lobster, and duck.
Pain au FromentBread made from 100% wheat flour. Pain au Froment with a percentage mark after the name indicates mixed flours. An example may be froment 75%, the other flour used for the remaining 25% will usually be indicated.
Pain au NoixNut bread. This bread is usually made with whole wheat flour and walnuts. Walnuts are France’s most highly rated nut. The French name for a walnut is noix, and that word just translates as "nut". All other nuts have unique French names while the walnut is “the nut.”
PancettaPancetta is Italian bacon made of pork belly meat that is salt cured and spiced with black pepper and sometimes other spices. It differs from traditional bacon in that it is not smoked.
PanfortePanforte is a traditional Italian dessert containing fruits and nuts, and resembles fruitcake or Lebkuchen. It may date back to 13th century Siena, in Italy's Tuscany region. The process of making panforte is fairly simple. Sugar is dissolved in honey and various nuts, fruits and spices are mixed together with flour. The entire mixture is baked in a shallow pan. The finished cake is dusted with icing sugar.
Panna CottaPanna cotta is an Italian dessert made by simmering together cream, milk and sugar, mixing this with gelatin, and letting it cool until set. It is generally from the Northern Italian region of Piedmont, although it is eaten all over Italy, where it is served with wild berries, caramel, chocolate sauce or fruit coulis.
PanzanellaA salad consisting of toasted cubes of bread tossed with vegetables and vinaigrette. The salad is then marinated for at least one hour. The bread should be very firm so that it will endure the soaking of dressing. Vegetables can include tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, and onions. Lots of garlic, capers, black olives, and anchovies are added to the salad.
PapayaAlmost oval melon-like fruit with creamy golden yellow skin, orange yellow flesh and many shiny black seeds right in the center; when slightly under-ripe, the flesh is firm, and at this point it is good for making relishes; it is soft and very juicy when ripe; the skin contains a natural enzyme that tenderizes meat and is frequently included in marinades for that reason. Some weigh up to ten pounds, but most are about the size of a mango. Papaya will ripen at room temperature, so you can buy them firm; but eat when soft.
Pappa al PomodoroThis is a Tuscan soup made with bread and tomatoes, usually containing basil and garlic.
PappardelleWide flat pasta noodles served with rich, hearty sauces.
PaprikaThis bright red powder comes from a mild red pepper, and is the main flavor in Hungarian cooking. The flavors of paprika range from sweet and mild to spicy hot, and many consider Hungarian paprika the best. Paprika is popular in shellfish dishes, casseroles, and as a garnish.
ParsleyThis herb leaf is most popular as a garnish (and a breath freshener), and is more often used dried than fresh. The light, fresh flavor and scent lends itself to many different dishes and the appearance adds to any presentation.
Pasta e FagioliA rich bean soup with pasta, in which a large sausage (such as cotechino) has been cooked. The soup is eaten first, followed by the sausage served with mustard and bread.
PaviticaA dessert "walnut roll" made cinnamon-bun style, except with a walnut, honey, and sugar mixture in the roll.
Pearl OnionsTiny, marble-size onions that are difficult to peel but make a good side dish or addition to soups and stews. Frozen ones are easier to handle, but less flavorful.
PennePenne is a type of pasta that is a medium length "tube", cut diagonally at both edges.
Penne rigatePenne rigate is the same shape as penne, but with ridged sides.
PeppadewPeppadew is the brand name of sweet piquanté peppers (a cultivar of Capsicum baccatum) grown in the Limpopo province of South Africa. The flavour of the Peppadew fruit is sweet, with mild heat of around 1,177 on the Scoville scale.
Pequin PepperPequin (or Piquin) pepper is a hot chile pepper cultivar commonly used as a spice. Common uses include pickling, salsas and sauces, soups, and vinegars. The popular Cholula brand hot sauce lists piquin peppers and arbol peppers among its ingredients.
PérigueuxA rich brown sauce flavored with madeira and truffles. The sauce, which goes with a variety of dishes including meat, game, poultry and eggs, is named after Périgueux, a city in the Périgord region of Southwest France that is noted for its truffles. Dishes using the sauce are often labeled à la périgourdine or simply Périgueux.
PersilladeA combination of chopped parsley and garlic, usually added to dishes at the end of cooking. nice combined with breadcrumbs as a crust.
PicadaPicada or Picada Colombiana is a Colombian cuisine dish prepared with pieces of steak, chicken, arepa, potato, yuca (cassava), morcilla, chorizo, and plantain. The ingredients are usually fried. The word picada means chopped in Spanish.
PiccalilliPiccalilli is an English interpretation of Indian pickles, a relish of chopped pickled vegetables and spices; though regional recipes vary considerably. British piccalilli contains various vegetables – invariably cauliflower and vegetable marrow – and seasonings of mustard and turmeric. A more finely chopped variety "sandwich piccalilli" is also available from major British supermarkets. It is used as an accompaniment to foods such as sausages, bacon, eggs, toast, cheese, and tomatoes. It is usually used to accompany a dish on a plate rather than as a bread spread. It is popular as a relish with cold meats such as ham and brawn, and with a ploughman's lunch. In the Northeastern United States, commercial piccalillis are based on diced sweet peppers, either red or green. This style is somewhat similar to sweet pepper relish, with the piccalilli being distinguished by having a darker red or green color and like British piccalilli, the chunks are larger and it is tangier and slightly less sweet.
PiciPici is a thick, hand-rolled pasta, like a fat spaghetti. It originates in the province of Siena in Tuscany; in the Montalcino area it is also referred to as pinci. The dough is typically made from flour and water only. The addition of egg is optional, being determined by family traditions. The dough is rolled out in a thick flat sheet, then cut into strips. In some families, the strip of dough is rolled between one palm and the table, while the other hand is wrapped with the rest of the strip. It can also be formed by rolling the strip between the palms. Either method forms a thick pasta, slightly thinner than a common pencil. Unlike spaghetti or macaroni, this pasta is not uniform in size and has variations of thickness along its length.
Pink PeppercornThis is not a true pepper but is a dried berry from a small mastic tree related to the rose bush and found on the French Island of Reunion in the Indian Ocean. (These are also commonly referred to as "Red Peppercorns" in trade and in many cookbooks.) They are related to, but different from the berries of the "pepper tree" that grows wild in Brazil and some parts of the southern USA.
Pinot GrisPinot Gris is made from grapes that generally produce different styles of wine depending on where the grapes are grown and how they're handled in the cellar. In the Alsace region of France, and in places like Oregon and New Zealand, Pinot Gris typically makes rich wines marked by a bit of spice. The Italian style (Pinot Grigio) tends to be fresh, crisp and refreshing. Sample either style with seafood and pasta dishes, vegetarian food and poultry.
Pinot NoirPinot Noir, a notoriously difficult grape to grow, made its mark initially in Burgundy, France. The grape continues to deliver single-varietal wines that are among the best in the world. Pinot Noirs are delicate wines that taste of red fruits like cherries, raspberries and strawberries. With age, flavors and aromas become more complex, developing earthy notes like mushrooms and decaying leaves. Burgundy in particular is noted for developing these earthy flavors. In the New World, tasty Pinot Noir is being made in Oregon, New Zealand, and some of the cooler appellations of California.
PissaladièreLa pissaladière is another speciality of Nice. Though it resembles a pizza, it is made with bread dough and the traditional variety never has a tomato topping. It is usually sold in bakeries, and is topped with a bed of onions, lightly browned, and a kind of paste, called pissalat, made from sardines and anchovies, and the small black olives of Nice, called caillettes.
PistouPistou, or pistou sauce, is a Provençal cold sauce made from cloves of garlic, fresh basil, and olive oil. It is somewhat similar to pesto, although it lacks pine nuts. Some modern versions of the recipe include grated parmesan, pecorino or similar hard cheeses. A somewhat similar sauce is Argentine chimichurri made with parsley.
Poblano PepperThe poblano is a mild chili pepper originating in the state of Puebla, Mexico. Dried, it is called a chile ancho ("wide chile"). The ripened red poblano is significantly hotter and more flavorful than the less ripe, green poblano. While poblanos tend to have a mild flavor, occasionally and unpredictably, they can have significant heat. Different peppers from the same plant have been reported to vary substantially in heat intensity.
PomegranatesA pomegranate is about the size of an orange, with a yellowish shell that turns a rich red color as it matures. Inside the inedible husk are individual cells containing seed kernels. Each seed is surrounded by a juice-filled sac, which is pressed out during processing. It is the juice of the fruit that interests most cooks and health food enthusiasts.
Portobello MushrromThick-fleshed with sanity caps; rich and hearty flavor. Best used for grilling, burger-style.
ProvoloneProvolone is an all-purpose cheese used for cooking, dessert purposes, and even grating. It is a traditional, creamy, stretched, curd cheese. This cheese appears in various shapes. The thin, hard rind is golden-yellow and shiny. Sometimes it is waxed. Provolone cheese can be of various types. Dolce (mild Provolone) is aged for two to three months, and it is supple and smooth with a thin waxed rind. It is generally used as table cheese. Aged for six months to two years, is it darker with small holes and a spicy flavor.
PuttanescaA piquant pasta sauce made of tomatoes, onions, black olives, capers, anchovies, and chile flakes. The hot pasta is tossed in this sauce prior to serving. Some recipes leave the ingredients raw, allowing the heat of the pasta to bring out the flavors.
Quatre EpicesA French spice mixture containing ground cinnamon, nutmeg, cloves, and pepper. This mixture is used to season stews and pates.
QuenelleThe Quenelle has become a word associated with a shape, not an ingredient. The shape is formed into an smooth oval similar to a football or a three-sided eliptical shape that is used to make a pleasing presentation for the semi-soft foods being served. This shape is achieved with the use of two spoons of the same size that are held in each hand so the bowls of the spoons face and are positioned next to each other. The first spoon scoops out a spoonful of the food being molded and as it does, this forms the first side of the Quenelle as it is held in the bowl of the spoon. The bowl of the second spoon is then pressed against one side of the scooped contents that are being held in the first spoon in order to start the process of forming the second side, creating a ridge running from the tip of the spoon to the handle.
QuinceThis yellow-skinned fruit looks and tastes like a cross between an apple and a pear. Its texture and flavor make it better cooked than raw. Its high pectin content makes it ideal for use in jams, jellies and preserves. Introduced to Latin America by the Spanish and/or Portuguese; looks like a large pear, but is hard and very sour; usually cooked with sugar, after which it becomes faint pink.
RagoûtRagoût is a thick, hearty stew of French origin; a similar version known as ragù is also made in Italy. Depending on the cook and the region, ragoût can be made with the intention of serving it as a main course dish, or it may be designed as a thick sauce to accompany boiled new potatoes, noodles, or some other form of starch. The defining characteristic of ragoût is that it is cooked very slowly over low heat. The slow cooking allows flavors to develop over time, creating a richly layered flavor. Many cooks historically made ragoût over the fire or on a closed woodstove, allowing the stew to mature slowly over the course of the day while periodically adding ingredients as desired. Modern cooks simply use a low stove setting, or sometimes the oven.
RampsRamps are an early spring vegetable, a perennial wild onion with a strong garlic-like odor and a pronounced onion flavor.
RatatouilleRatatouille is a vegetable stew consisting of onions, eggplant, sweet peppers, zucchini, and tomatoes flavored with garlic, herbs, and olive oil.
Red Pepper FlakesMost crushed red pepper usually comes from the long, red New Mexico chile.
RémouladeInvented in France, rémoulade is a popular condiment in many countries. Very much like the tartar sauce of some English-speaking cultures, remoulade is often aioli- or mayonnaise-based. Although similar to tartar sauce, it is often more yellowish (or reddish in Louisiana), often flavored with curry, and sometimes contains chopped pickles or piccalilli. It can also contain horseradish, paprika, anchovies, capers and a host of other items. While its original purpose was possibly for serving with meats, it is now more often used as an accompaniment to seafood dishes, especially pan-fried breaded fish fillets (primarily sole and plaice) and seafood cakes (such as crab or salmon cakes).
RibollitaRibollita is a famous Tuscan soup, a hearty potage made with bread and vegetables. There are many variations but the main ingredients always include leftover bread, cannellini beans and inexpensive vegetables such as carrot, cabbage, beans, silverbeet, cavolo nero, and onion. Its name literally means "reboiled".
RicciarelliRicciarelli are a traditional Italian biscuit with origin in the Tuscan city of Siena dating to the 14th century. Today, the biscuits are made using an almond base with sugar, honey and egg white. When prepared in the traditional method, the almonds are ground with a milling machine, and the finished mix is formed into numerous oval-shaped cookies that are set aside for two days before baking. The rough and crackled surface is usually lightly sprinkled with confectioner's sugar.
RicottaThe word ricotta means "recooked" in Italian, and the fresh cheese is not actually a cheese — it's a whey cheese. Whey is the leftover liquid that separates from the curds when making mozzarella, provolone, romano, etc. The remaining protein-rich byproduct is harvested, made more acidic, and reheated to create ricotta. Ricotta can be made from the whey of sheep, cow, goat, or water buffalo milk, but most American ricotta is a combination of whey and store-bought cow milk. Fresh ricotta has a slightly grainy texture and moist, almost sweet flavor.
RieslingRiesling is a crisp, clean wine with green apple, pear and lime flavors. The best offer pleasing mineral qualities as well. With age, Riesling takes on honey flavors and attractive oily aromas. Riesling grows well in Germany, the Alsace region of France, the Finger Lakes region of New York, and parts of Australia and Washington State. Riesling pairs nicely with spicy foods, poultry and pork. Try it with Thai food.
RilletteRillettes are a preparation of meat similar to pâté. Originally made with pork, the meat is cubed or chopped, salted heavily and cooked slowly in fat until it is tender enough to be easily shredded, and then cooled with enough of the fat to form a paste. They are normally used as spread on bread or toast and served at room temperature.
Romesco SauceRomesco Sauce is a nut and red pepper-based sauce from Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain. It is typically made from any mixture of roasted or raw almonds, pine nuts, or hazelnuts; roasted garlic, olive or sunflower oil, bitxo peppers (similar to New Mexico chiles) or nyora peppers (a small, round, variety of red bell pepper). Flour or ground stale bread may be used as a thickener or to provide texture.
Roucou See Annatto Seeds
RouilleRouille is a sauce that consists of olive oil with breadcrumbs, garlic, saffron and chili peppers. It is served as a garnish with fish, fish soup and, notably, bouillabaisse. Rouille is most often used in the cuisine of Provence.
RouladeRoulade is a European dish consisting of a slice of meat rolled around a filling, such as cheese, vegetables, or other meats. A roulade, like a braised dish, is often browned then covered with wine or stock and cooked.
RouxRoux is a mixture of flour and fat used to thicken sauces, soups, and stews. Though usually made with butter, roux is also made with bacon or poultry fats, margarine, and vegetable oil. The mixture is cooked for a brief time to remove the raw taste of the starch from the flour. Longer cooking results in a darker color, which is favorable in Creole cooking where roux are cooked for long periods until they reach a dark brown color with a nut-like flavor and aroma.
SabayonSabayon is an Italian dessert, or sometimes a beverage, made with egg yolks, sugar, and a sweet wine (usually Marsala wine, but in the original formula Moscato d'Asti). The dessert version is a light custard, whipped to incorporate a large amount of air.
SaffronSince it takes around 35,000 flowers to produce a pound of saffron (from the flowers' stamens), saffron is the most expensive spice in the world. Saffron is dark orange and thread-like, with a spicy flavor and aroma. Saffron, even crushed, is added right before serving to retain its full flavor and aroma.
SageAlso in the mint family, sage is the herb leaf from an evergreen shrub and has an earthy and warm flavor. Soft, silvery sage leaves are often ground lightly. The herb is featured in many holiday dishes, salads, and meat dishes.
Salade LyonnaiseSalade Lyonnaise is made with frisée (or another type of strong, bitter greens), poached egg, bacon, and a vinaigrette (usually made with shallot, dijon, sherry vinaigrette, and salt and pepper).
Salade NiçoiseIs a mixed salad of tomatoes and green beans topped with tuna and anchovies and dressed with a vinaigrette.
SalsifyA root vegetable belonging to the dandelion family, salsify is also known as the oyster plant because of its oystery taste when cooked. The root is similar in appearance to a long, thin parsnip, with creamy white flesh and a thick skin. In the same way as many root vegetables, salsify can be boiled, mashed or used in soups and stews.
SataySatay, or sate, is a dish of seasoned, skewered and grilled meat, served with a sauce. Satay may consist of diced or sliced chicken, goat, mutton, beef, pork, fish, other meats, or tofu; the more authentic version uses skewers from the midrib of the coconut palm frond, although bamboo skewers are often used. These are grilled or barbecued over a wood or charcoal fire, then served with various spicy seasonings. Satay originated in Java, Indonesia. Satay is available almost anywhere in Indonesia, where it has become a national dish.
Sauce BavaroiseSauce Bavaroise is hollandaise with added cream, horseradish, and thyme.
Sauce BéarnaiseBéarnaise sauce is a sauce made of clarified butter emulsified in egg yolks, white wine vinegar and flavored with herbs. It is considered to be a 'child' of the mother Hollandaise sauce, one of the five sauces in the French haute cuisine mother sauce repertoire. The difference is only in their flavoring: Béarnaise uses shallot, chervil, peppercorn, and tarragon, while Hollandaise uses lemon juice or white wine. Its name is related to the province of Béarn, France.
Sauce Crème FleuretteSauce Crème Fleurette is hollandaise with crème fraîche added.
Sauce EspagnoleIn cooking, espagnole sauce is one of Auguste Escoffier's five mother sauces that are the basis of sauce-making in classic French cooking. In the late 19th century, Escoffier codified the recipe, which is still followed today. The basic method of making espagnole is to prepare a very dark brown roux, to which veal stock or water is added, along with browned bones, pieces of beef, vegetables, and various seasonings. This blend is allowed to slowly reduce while being frequently skimmed. The classical recipe calls for additional veal stock to be added as the liquid gradually reduces but today water is generally used instead. Tomato paste or pureed tomatoes are added towards the end of the process, and the sauce is further reduced.
Sauce MaltaiseSauce Maltaise is hollandaise to which blanched orange zest and the juice of blood orange is added.
Sauce MousselineSauce Mousseline, also known as Sauce Chantilly, is produced by folding whipped cream into hollandaise.
Sauce NoisetteSauce Noisette is a hollandaise variation made with browned butter (beurre noisette)
Sauce VeloutéIn preparing a velouté sauce, a light stock (one in which the bones used have not been previously roasted), such as chicken or fish stock, is thickened with a blond roux. Thus the ingredients of a velouté are equal parts by mass butter and flour to form the roux, a light chicken or fish stock, and salt and pepper for seasoning. The sauce produced is commonly referred to by the type of stock used e.g. chicken velouté.
SauternesSauternes is a French sweet wine from the Sauternais region of the Graves section in Bordeaux. Sauternes is made from Sémillon, Sauvignon blanc, and Muscadelle grapes that have been affected by Botrytis cinerea, also known as noble rot. This causes the grapes to become partially raisined, resulting in concentrated and distinctively flavored wines. Due to its climate, Sauternes is one of the few wine regions where infection with noble rot is a frequent occurrence. Even so, production is a hit-or-miss proposition, with widely varying harvests from vintage to vintage. Wines from Sauternes, especially the Premier Cru Supérieur estate Château d'Yquem, can be very expensive, due largely to the very high cost of production.
Sauvignon BlancSauvignon Blanc is a fresh, crisp, aromatic wine with grapefruit and grassy flavors. This wine is the star of the Loire region of France. It also shines in the Bordeaux region, where it is often blended with Semillon. In the New World, New Zealand has emerged as a prime spot for Sauvignon Blanc.
ScallionA scallion is one of various Allium species, all of which have hollow green leaves (like the common onion), but which lack a fully developed root bulb. It has a relatively mild onion flavour, and is used as a vegetable, either raw or cooked. Many other names are used, including green onion, spring onion, salad onion, table onion, green shallot, onion stick, long onion, baby onion, precious onion, yard onion, gibbon, or syboe.
ScallopsScallops are characterized by having two types of meat in one shell: the adductor muscle, called "scallop", which is white and meaty, and the roe, called "coral", which is red or white and soft. Sometimes, markets sell scallops already prepared in the shell, with only the adductor muscle intact. Outside the U.S., the scallop is often sold whole. In Galician cuisine, scallops are baked with bread crumbs, ham, and onions. In the UK and Australia, they are available both with and without the roe. The roe is also usually eaten. In Japanese cuisine, scallops may be served in soup or prepared as sashimi or sushi. Dried scallop is known in Cantonese Chinese cuisine as conpoy. In a sushi bar, hotategai is the traditional scallop on rice, and while kaibashira may be called scallops, it is actually the adductor muscle of any kind of shellfish, e.g. mussels, oysters, or clams.
Scotch Bonnet PepperScotch bonnet peppers occupy the first top positions in the Scoville heat scale. Their spiciness value falls within 100,000-350,000. Scotch bonnet peppers are similar to the habanero pepper cultivars, except that they are a bit smaller is size and earthy in flavor. The green immature peppers mature to orange or scarlet red peppers. They are used in cooking meat, hot sauces and other recipes that call for hot peppers.
Scoville ScaleThe Scoville scale is the measurement of the pungency (spicy heat) of chili peppers or other spicy foods reported in Scoville heat units (SHU), a function of capsaicin concentration.
Sea UrchinIn cuisines around the Mediterranean, Paracentrotus lividus is often eaten raw, with lemon, and known as ricci on Italian menus where it is sometimes used in pasta sauces. It can also flavour omelettes, scrambled eggs, fish soup, mayonnaise, béchamel sauce for tartlets, the boullie for a soufflé, or Hollandaise sauce to make a fish sauce. In Chilean cuisine, it is served raw with lemon, onions, and olive oil.
SemifreddoSemifreddo is a class of semi-frozen desserts, typically ice-cream cakes, semi-frozen custards, and certain fruit tarts. It has the texture of frozen mousse because it is usually produced by uniting two equal parts of ice cream and whipped cream. Such a dessert's Spanish counterpart is called semifrío. In Italian cuisine, the semifreddo is commonly made with gelato as a primary ingredient.
SémillonSémillon is a golden-skinned grape used to make dry and sweet white wines, mostly in France and Australia. Sémillon is the major white grape in the Bordeaux wine regions and Côtes de Gascogne. Whereas today Australia's major white varieties are Chardonnay and Sauvignon blanc, early in the country's viticultural development it was Sémillon, then mislabeled as Riesling.
SemolinaSemolina is the coarse, purified wheat middlings of durum wheat used in making pasta, breakfast cereals, puddings, and couscous. The term semolina is also used to designate coarse middlings from other varieties of wheat, and from other grains such as rice and maize.
Serrano HamThis cured, air-dried Spanish ham, also known as jamón iberico or pata negra, is considered to be one of the finest in the world. It comes from the native Spanish Iberian pigs and is only produced in south and south-western Spain.
Serrano PepperThe Serrano pepper is similar to the jalapeño in its look, but this pepper is much hotter. On the Scoville Heat Index, the Serrano Pepper can be between 10,000 and 25,000. This pepper is usually small (around two inches) and green in color. As a general rule of thumb, the smaller the Serrano pepper, the hotter it will taste.
SgroppinoSgroppino is an Italian cocktail made from chilled vodka, prosecco, lemon sorbet, and mint leaves for garnish.
ShallotsA member of the onion family, but formed more like garlic than onions. Shallots are favored for their mild onion flavor, and can be used in the same manner as onions. A shallot looks like a small, elongated onion with a copper, reddish, or gray skin. When peeled, shallots separate into into cloves like garlic.
SherbetIn the United States, sorbet and sherbet are different products. Sherbet in the United States must include dairy ingredients such as milk or cream to reach a milkfat content between 1% and 2%. Products with higher milkfat content of 10% or higher are defined as ice cream, while those between 2% and 10% milkfat are termed "frozen dairy dessert"; products with lower milkfat content and not using any milk or cream ingredients, and no egg ingredients other than the egg white, are defined as water ice.
Shiitake MushroomSpongy caps, tough stems; complex and smoky flavor. Best used in polenta or risotto.
ShirazShiraz Australian versions are typically big, bold and spicy with jammy fruit and aromas of leather and black fruit. Syrah is at home in the Rhone region of France, where the grape makes spicy, rich, darkly delicious wines that increase in complexity as they age. Syrah also makes delicious wines in Australia, where it is marketed as Shiraz. Syrah also excels in Washington State, where it often displays an attractive acid balance, and in California, where the styles vary significantly.
ShortbreadShortbread is a type of biscuit ("cookie" in American English) which is traditionally made from one part white sugar, two parts butter, and three parts flour. The use of plain white (wheat) flour is common today, and other ingredients like ground rice or cornflour are sometimes added to alter the texture. Also, modern recipes often deviate from the pure three ingredients by splitting the sugar portion into equal parts granulated sugar and powdered sugar and many further add a portion of salt.
SkordaliaSkordalia is a thick purée (or sauce, dip, spread, etc.) in Greek cuisine made by combining crushed garlic with a bulky base—which may be a purée of potatoes, walnuts, almonds, or liquid-soaked bread—and then beating in olive oil to make a smooth emulsion. Vinegar is often added.
SoccaSocca is a speciality of Nice, France. It is a round flat cake made of chickpea flour and olive oil, like the Italian farinata. It is baked in the oven in a large pan more than a meter in diameter, then seasoned with pepper and eaten with the fingers while hot. In Toulon socca is known as La Cade.
SofritoSofrito consists of garlic, onion, peppers and tomatoes cooked in olive oil, in Spanish cuisine.
SorbetSorbet is a frozen dessert made from sweetened water flavoured with fruit (typically juice or purée), wine, and/or liqueur.
SorbettoEssentially the same thing as sorbet, though some say sorbetto contains a higher fruit to liquid ratio.
Sous-videSous-vide, French for "under vacuum" a method of cooking food sealed in airtight plastic bags in a water bath for longer than normal cooking times—72 hours in some cases—at an accurately regulated temperature much lower than normally used for cooking, typically around 131 °F to 140 °F for meats and higher for vegetables. The intention is to cook the item evenly, and not to overcook the outside while still keeping the inside at the same "doneness", keeping the food juicier.
SpaetzleSpaetzle are a type of egg noodle or dumpling of soft texture found in the cuisines of southern Germany and of Austria, Switzerland, Hungary, Alsace and South Tyrol.
SpätzleSee Spaetzle.
SpeckIn parts of the English-speaking culinary world, the term "Speck" refers to Italian Speck, a type of prosciutto, rather than German Speck, which is identical to the Italian "lardo".
SquabIn culinary terminology, squab is a young domestic pigeon or its meat. The meat is widely described as tasting like dark chicken.
StreuselA delicious topping of sugar, butter, flour, and other spices that adds flavor and crunch to crumb cakes, coffee cakes and some muffins.
SumacThe fruits (drupes) of the genus Rhus (Sumac) are ground into a reddish-purple powder used as a spice in Middle Eastern cuisine to add a lemony taste to salads or meat. In Arab cuisine, it is used as a garnish on meze dishes such as hummus and is added to salads in the Levant. In Iranian (Persian and Kurdish) cuisine, sumac is added to rice or kebab. In Jordanian and Turkish cuisine, it is added to salad-servings of kebabs and lahmacun. Rhus coriaria is used in the spice mixture za'atar.
SunchokesAlso called Jerusalem artichokes, sunchokes are the knobby roots of a perennial sunflower. They resemble ginger in appearance and have a subtle, delicious flavor. Their high sugar content enables them to brown well when fried or roasted.
SyrahSee Shiraz.
TaboulehIs a Levantine Arab salad traditionally made of bulgur, tomatoes, cucumbers, finely chopped parsley, mint, onion and garlic, and seasoned with olive oil, lemon juice and salt, although there are various other variations such as using couscous instead of bulgur.
TagineA tajine or tagine is a historically Berber dish from North Africa that is named after the type of earthenware pot in which it is cooked. (A similar dish, known as tavvas, is found in the cuisine of Cyprus.) The traditional method of cooking with a tagine is to place the tagine over coals. Moroccan tajine dishes are slow-cooked savory stews, typically made with sliced meat, poultry, or fish together with vegetables or fruit. Spices, nuts, and dried fruits are also used. Common spices include ginger, cumin, turmeric, cinnamon, and saffron. Paprika and chili are used in vegetable tajine. The sweet and sour combination is common in tajine dishes like lamb with dates and spices. Tajines are served with couscous or bread. Because the domed or cone-shaped lid of the tajine pot traps steam and returns the condensed liquid to the pot, a minimal amount of water is needed to cook meats and vegetables. This method of cooking is very practical in areas where water supplies are limited or where public water is not yet available.
TagliataItalian for sliced steak. Essentially a thick piece of beef that is grilled, then carved into slices.
TagliatelleTagliatelle is a type of long, flat pasta that is slightly narrower than fettuccine..
TagraA tagra is a shallow, unglazed earthenware cooking vessel from the north of Morocco, where it's used to make fish dishes such Fish Tagine with Tomatoes, Peppers and Tomatoes. Tagras can be oval or round and sold with or without covers, although without is perhaps the more traditional. As with other clay and ceramic cookware, a tagra should be seasoned before its first use over charcoal or in the oven.
TahiniA light creamy paste made of toasted sesame seeds and sesame oil - almost like peanut butter. Used in many Middle Eastern dishes, it can be found in Middle Eastern delicatessens or larger supermarkets.
TamalesA tamale is a traditional Mesoamerican dish made of masa (a starchy dough, usually corn-based), which is steamed or boiled in a leaf wrapper. The wrapping is discarded before eating. Tamales can be filled with meats, cheeses, fruits, vegetables, chilies or any preparation according to taste, and both the filling and the cooking liquid may be seasoned.
TamarindThe tamarind tree produces edible, pod-like fruit which are used extensively in cuisines around the world. The fruit pulp is edible. The hard green pulp of a young fruit is considered by many to be too sour, but is often used as a component of savory dishes. The ripened fruit is considered the more palatable, as it becomes sweeter and less sour (acidic) as it matures. It is used in desserts as a jam, blended into juices or sweetened drinks, sorbets, ice creams and all manner of snacks.In Western cuisine, it is found in Worcestershire sauce and HP sauce.
TapenadeTapenade is a rich soft paste made of olives, capers, anchovies, with a variety of flavourings such as garlic, mustard, basil and parsley. Tapenade can be made with black or green olives, each having the distinct flavour of its key ingredient. Alternative ingredients include savoury cousins- sun-dried tomato, artichoke, roasted aubergine, feta, etc. etc.
TapiocaThis is a starchy ingredient derived from the cassava root. Tapioca puddings and custards are made with pearl tapioca, which serves as a thickening agent. Tapioca comes in several forms, including granules and flour, as well as the pellets that are called pearl tapioca. Tapioca starch is often used to make dumpling dough, or as a thickening agent. If necessary, it can be used as a substitute for cornstarch. Store tapioca in a cool dark place.
TarragonThe dark, pointed green leaves of this shrubby herb have a flavor similar to anise. The most popular variety is French Tarragon, with the flavor of sweet licorice. Tarragon is very popular in French cooking, in fish dishes, and in herbal vinegar for cooking.
Tarte TatinTarte Tatin is an upside-down tart in which the fruit (usually apples) are caramelized in butter and sugar before the tart is baked.
TartufoTartufo is an Italian ice-cream dessert. It is usually composed of two or more flavors of ice cream, often with either fruit syrup or frozen fruit (typically raspberry, strawberry or cherry) in the center. It is typically covered in a shell made of chocolate or cocoa, but cinnamon or nuts are also used.
TempuraTempura is a Japanese dish of seafood or vegetables that have been battered and deep fried. A light batter is made of cold water (sometimes sparkling water is used to keep the batter light) and soft wheat flour (cake, pastry or all-purpose flour). Tempura batter is traditionally mixed in small batches using chopsticks for only a few seconds, leaving lumps in the mixture that, along with the cold batter temperature, result in the unique fluffy and crisp tempura structure when cooked. The batter is often kept cold by adding ice, or by placing the bowl inside a larger bowl with ice in it. Overmixing the batter will result in activation of wheat gluten, which causes the flour mixture to become chewy and dough-like when fried.
TerrineTerrine is a French forcemeat loaf similar to a pâté, made with more coarsely chopped ingredients.
Thai PepperGrown in Thailand and neighboring countries, the Thai pepper is a type of pepper that can be classified as "very hot." With a Scoville Heat Index of between 50,000 and 100,000, these peppers are sure to leave your taste buds wanting relief. The Thai pepper is one of the smallest peppers, measuring in at less than an inch. It's used in many spicy Thai dishes at restaurants in the U.S.
ThymeThyme comes from the tiny, gray-green leaves of an herb in the mint family. Thyme leaves are often dried and ground. The versatile herb has pine, mint, and lemon flavors, and a subtle aroma. Thyme works well with poultry, soups, lamb, eggs, and more.
TiramisuTiramisu is an Italian dessert. It is made of ladyfingers (Italian: Savoiardi) dipped in coffee, layered with a whipped mixture of egg yolks and mascarpone cheese, and flavored with Marsala wine and cocoa. The recipe has been adapted into many varieties of puddings, cakes and other desserts.
ToffeeToffee is a confection made from sugar and butter with a pleasingly creamy, melting texture. Toffee can be hard or soft, depending how it’s prepared. Additional flavourings or ingredients, such as nuts, chocolate, cream and even whisky are all common. Toffee is sold either in small bars, as wrapped sweets, or loose in boxes, broken up into bite-sized pieces. Bonfire toffee, made with black treacle, has a more intense flavour than regular toffee and is popular during Guy Fawkes celebrations. British toffee is made differently to American taffy – with the latter, the sugar mixture is pulled.
TomatilloTomatillos look like small green tomatoes (of which they are a distant relative) covered with a papery husk. However they are a plant of the nightshade family, related to the cape gooseberry. They have a bright, lemon-like flavor perfect with spicy food or alongside grilled items. They can also add a nice hit of acid to stews and other heavy fare.
TrebbianoTrebbiano is the second most widely planted grape in the world. It gives good yields, but tends to yield undistinguished wine. It can be fresh and fruity, but does not keep long. Its high acidity makes it important in Cognac production. Also known as Ugni blanc, in particular in France, it has many other names reflecting a family of local subtypes, particularly in Italy and France.
TumericMuch like ginger, turmeric spice comes from an underground stem and is a main ingredient in most curries and curry powders. While you probably wouldn't call turmeric hot on its own, the root is certainly warm and aromatic. The chemical curcumin in turmeric gives curry powder its bright saffron yellow color, and is responsible for the spice's kick.
Turkish DelightTurkish delight or Lokum is a family of confections based on a gel of starch and sugar. Premium varieties consist largely of chopped dates, pistachios, and hazelnuts or walnuts bound by the gel; traditional varieties are mostly gel, generally flavored with rosewater, mastic, Bergamot orange, or lemon. The confection is often packaged and eaten in small cubes dusted with icing sugar, copra, or powdered cream of tartar, to prevent clinging.
TurmericTurmeric is a herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family. Turmeric grows wild in the forests of South and Southeast Asia. It is one of the key ingredients in many Asian dishes. In recipes outside South Asia, turmeric is sometimes used as an agent to impart a rich, custard-like yellow color.
TzatzikiDipping sauce derived from yogurt, garlic, cucumber, olive oil and lemon juice. Served with calamari.
Ugni BlancSee Trebbiano.
UniIn Japan, sea urchin is known as uni, and its roe can retail for as much as A$450/kg; it is served raw as sashimi or in sushi, with soy sauce and wasabi. Japan imports large quantities from the United States, South Korea, and other producers.
VadouvanVadouvan is a ready-to-use blend of spices that is a derivative of Indian curry blend with a French influence. A variant of a masala with added spices such as shallots and garlic, Vadouvan is usually used in gourmet cooking. The spice is thought to have originated due to French colonial influence in the Puducherry region of India.
VermicelliVermicelli is a traditional type of pasta round in section similar to spaghetti. It differes from spaghetti in that it is slightly thicker.
VerrineA verrine is originally a small thick-glass container with no base, which purpose is to contain a solid or liquid dish (starter, course or desert), rather than a drink. This French word is usually left untranslated in English. By way of metonymy, a “verrine” therefore designates in the cooking world a dish served in a verrine, in a vertical manner, which allows a different aesthetic and gustatory experience from a dish served in a traditional plate.
ViennoiserieViennoiseries are baked goods made from a yeast-leavened dough in a manner similar to bread, or from puff pastry, but with added ingredients (particularly eggs, butter, milk, cream and sugar) giving them a richer, sweeter character, approaching that of pastry. The dough is often laminated. Viennoiseries are typically eaten at breakfast or as snacks. Examples include: croissants; Vienna bread and its French equivalent, pain viennois, often shaped into baguettes; brioche; pain au chocolat; pain au lait; pain aux raisins; chouquettes; Danish pastries; bugnes; and chausson aux pommes, the French name for an apple turnover.
VinaigretteVinaigrette is a mixture (emulsion) of oils, such as soybean oil, canola oil, olive oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil, peanut oil, grape seed oil, and vinegar, sometimes flavored with herbs, spices, and other ingredients. It is used most commonly as a salad dressing, but also as a cold sauce or marinade.
WatercressWatercress is a fast-growing, aquatic or semi-aquatic, perennial plant native to Europe and Asia, and one of the oldest known leaf vegetables consumed by humans. It is a member of the family Brassicaceae, botanically related to garden cress, mustard and radish — all noteworthy for a peppery, tangy flavour.
White LadyA cocktail made with white crème de menthe, cointreau and lemon juice shaken with ice, then strained into a stemmed cocktail glass.
White Peppercorn These are fully mature berries that have been picked partially ripe and had their outer skin removed. This is generally done by soaking the berries in water for a number of days and then rubbing the outer skins off. It is also sometimes done mechanically while dry. The aroma is earthy and taste is hot and creamy but not pungent or aromatic. It is quite distinctive in aroma and flavor from that of the black pepper and almost never used as final seasoning.
WienerschnitzelGerman for "Viennese cutlet," this famous Viennese dish actually originated in France. It's a veal scallop that is dipped in flour, beaten egg and breadcrumbs before being sautéed. Wienerschnitzel is usually garnished with lemon slices and sometimes hard-cooked egg, anchovies or capers.
Worcestershire SauceThe ingredients of a traditional bottle of Worcestershire sauce sold in the UK as "The Original & Genuine Lea & Perrins Worcestershire sauce" are malt vinegar (from barley), spirit vinegar, molasses, sugar, salt, anchovies, tamarind extract, onions, garlic, spice, and flavouring. The "spice, and flavouring" is believed to include cloves, soy sauce, lemons, pickles and peppers.
ZabaioneSee Sabayon
ZeppoleA Zeppola (plural: zeppole; in southern Italian dialects: zeppoli) is an Italian pastry consisting of a deep-fried dough ball of varying size but typically about 4 inches (10 cm) in diameter. This doughnut or fritter is usually topped with powdered sugar, and may be filled with custard, jelly, cannoli-style pastry cream or a butter-and-honey mixture. The consistency ranges from light and puffy, to bread- or pasta-like.
ZinfandelA red wine grape originally thought to be indigenous to California. Recently, however, experts have concluded that the Zinfandel grape was brought to the United States from Italy's Puglia region and is a descendant of the primitivo grape grown there. Regardless, the Zinfandel grape — with its spicy, raspberry flavors — makes marvelous, fruity red wines ranging from lighter styles to big, rich bottlings that can rival Cabernet Sauvignon. An intense wine, Zinfandel is high-alcohol and often just-this-side-of-sweet. In the 1980s, white Zinfandel (a blush wine) also gained considerable popularity. Occasionally, late-picked grapes full of concentrated sugar are made into late-harvest Zinfandels and served as dessert wine or in place of port.

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